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Cultural PolicyThe development of cultural policy during the twentieth century is underscored by three key developments. First, the formation of the Arts Council of Great Britain in 1946, first headed by the Cambridge economist Lord Keynes, saw the scaffolding developed for ongoing government support for the arts. In doing so, it established the principle of an “arm’s length” relationship between the government of the day and individual artists, through the development of independent arts boards engaged in the peer review of creative works. Second, the formation of the Fifth Republic in France in 1958 saw the creation of a Ministry of Culture, headed by the writer André Malraux. Malraux and his successors have seen three major tasks for a national cultural policy: government support for the creation of new artistic and cultural works; the promotion and maintenance of cultural heritage; and enabling equitable access to creative works and creative opportunities through all segments of society. Finally, at a global level, agencies such as UNESCO have sought to promote national cultural policies as an element of national sovereignty, particularly in the developing world, and this has involved addressing sources of structural inequality in the distribution of global cultural and communications resources...
Who Are the Real Cyberbullies: Hackers or the FTC? The Fairness of the FTC’s Authority in the Data Security ContextAs technology continues to be an integral part of daily life, there lies an ever-increasing threat of the personally identifiable information of consumers being lost, stolen, or accessed without authorization. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the U.S. government’s primary consumer protection agency and the country’s lead enforcer against companies subject to data breaches. Although the FTC lacks explicit statutory authority to enforce against data breaches, the Commission has successfully relied on Section 5 of the FTC Act (FTCA) to exercise its consumer protection power in the data security context. However, as the FTC continues to take action against businesses whose unfair data security practices have led to data breaches, private companies are questioning the agency’s authority to do so. Thus, the FTC is pushing for federal legislation to strengthen its existing authority to govern business entities’ data security practices. Part I of this Comment examines the FTC’s exercise of authority with regard to data breaches under Section 5 of the FTCA, noting that, over the course of many actions, the FTC’s authority on such matters was not contested, resulting in settlements between the parties. Part II discusses how certain companies have challenged the FTC’s authority to take enforcement actions against data breaches, and how recent court rulings may affect the results of a potential Target breach investigation. Part III discusses how recently introduced federal legislation may deter data breaches by clearly establishing the FTC’s authority while also proposing an extension of this legislation to ensure that liability is imposed against all entities that are subject to data breaches.
Кібербезпека як напрям євроатлантичної інтеграції УкраїниВойціховський, А. В. Кібербезпека як напрям євроатлантичної інтеграції України / А. В. Войціховський // Право і безпека у контексті європейської та євроатлантичної інтеграції: зб. ст. та тез наук. повідомл. за матеріалами дискус. панелі II Харків. міжнар. юрид. форуму (м. Харків, 28 верес. 2018 р.) / Нац. юрид. ун-т імені Ярослава Мудрого, НАПН України, Фонд Конрада Аденауера. – Харків: Право, 2018. - С. 42-48.
Кібербезпека як важлива складова системи захисту національної безпеки європейських країнВойціховський, А. В. Кібербезпека як важлива складова системи захисту національної безпеки європейських країн [Електронний ресурс] / А. В. Войціховський // Журнал східноєвропейського права. - 2018. - № 53. - С. 26-37. - Режим доступу: http://easternlaw.com.ua/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/voytsikhovskyy_53.pdf.
A Secure Maturity Model for Protecting e-Government Services: A Case of TanzaniaE-Government Maturity Models (eGMMs) are widely used in the implementation and development of e-Government services. These models outline various stages for e-Government development. Information security and privacy are considered as the most significant ...