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Does public attention reduce the influence of moneyed interests? Policy positions on SOPA/PIPA before and after the internet blackoutWe investigate the role of public attention in determining the effect that campaign contributions by interest groups have on legislators' policy positions. We exploit the shock in public attention induced by the Internet service blackout of January 2012 that increased the salience of the SOPA/PIPA bills aimed at stronger protection of property rights on the Internet. Using a new dataset of U.S. congressmen's public statements, we find a strong statistical relationship between campaign contributions funded by the affected industries and legislators' positions. However, this relationship evaporates once the two bills become primary policy issues. Our results are consistent with the notion that legislators choose positions on secondary policy issues in order to cater to organized interests, whereas positions on primary policy issues are driven by electoral support.
Liberalization and Universal Access to Basic Services : Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation, Financial Services, and ElectricityAccess to basic services plays an
important role in both individual well-being and a
country's economic development. For this reason,
general availability of these services to citizens,
regardless of income level and geographical location, has
generally been viewed as an important public policy goal.
However, the precise definition of this goal and the means
of attaining it have provoked controversy. This volume
explores whether liberalization can contribute to achieving
universal service goals and, if so, how, and looks at the
types of complementary policies that may be required. It
focuses on experience in four sectors: telecommunications,
financial, water and sanitation, and energy services. For
each sector, an overview paper and one or two case studies
from developing countries examine the experience of
governments in harnessing liberalization to meet social
goals. It is hoped that this cross-sector view will yield
general insights which a focus on a single sector may not,
and help each sector to generate ideas by drawing upon
experience in other sectors. A horizontal assessment also
helps to determine how far the services negotiations at the
World Trade Organization (WTO), under the general agreement
on trade in services can aid or impede the attainment of
universal service goals.
PRAWO AUTORSKIE: WYZWANIA I PERSPEKTYWY W KONTEKŚCIE ROZWOJU INTERNETU I POSTĘPU TECHNICZNEGO"Celem niniejszej pracy jest analiza prawa autorskiego w relacji do rozwoju Internetu i postępu technicznego. Skontrastowanie „tradycyjnych” zasad systemu ochrony praw autorskich z wyzwaniami spowodowanymi przez rozwój sieci internetowej jest okazją do refleksji na temat ogólnego stanu ochrony praw autorskich we współczesnych społeczeństwach. Prawodawcy muszą bowiem nieustannie reagować na wyzwania będące wynikiem pojawiania się nowych sposobów korzystania z chronionych dóbr kultury za pośrednictwem Internetu.Pierwszy rozdział przedstawia wybrane akty prawa międzynarodowego, które miały decydujace znaczenie w kształtowaniu obecnego systemu prawa autorskiego. Drugi rozdział skupia się na podstawowych zagadnieniach prawa autorskiego, zarysowując problemy interpretacyjne wynikające z prób dostosowania obowiązującego prawa do możliwości oferowanych użytkownikom Internetu przez nowe technologie. Ostatni rozdział prezentuje wybrane kwestie dotyczące wpływu Internetu i nowych technik tworzenia, rozpowszechniania i kopiowania utworów na prawo autorskie. Przykłady te ukazują skalę przeobrażeń jakie Internet i nowe technologie wprowadzają do systemu prawa autorskiego.
Internet a autorské právo-rozsah odpovědnosti jednotlivých subjektů a způsoby ochrany proti pirátstvíDiploma Thesis Summary The Internet and the copyright - the scope of liability of the individual entities and ways of protection against the piracy This thesis is focused on liabilitiy of the individual entities occurring on the Internet and piracy issues. It is primarily an analysis of how individual subjects may be responsible for violations of copyright rules. The aim of this thesis was not complete processing of all relevant aspects of piracy and the resulting responsibilities, but in particular to highlight the most topical issues discussed. I chose the topic because of personal interest to study the dynamically developing field of information technology law and intellectual property law. The work is divided into eight chapters, each dealing with a problem with this topic. The first two chapters talk about Internet in general and the ability this the Internet law to push through the Internet. Mentioned are mainly questions the legitimacy of law on the Internet, the reasons for the existence of the Internet law and especially the importance of copyright protection. Part three charts the formal sources of copyright in the digital era adapted to works of authorship. The focus of relationships on the Internet are issues of determining jurisdiction and applicable law, as described in Chapter Four....
Internetové pirátstvíThe main objective of this thesis is to describe the Internet piracy phenomenon and to define responsibility of individuals for copyright violations on the Internet from the view of valid Czech legislation. In order to prevent Internet piracy, countries are pushed to swiftly react on continuous development of new technologies used by pirates - these efforts of individual countries are described in several chapters of this thesis that are exploring the most significant court rulings. These rulings have or may eventually have impact on the legislation or approach to the piracy of other countries. This thesis consists of ten chapters. First chapter gives an introduction to the Internet piracy problem. It claims that copyright violation on the Internet might nowadays be the most common unlawful deed. Second chapter provides definitions of three terms which are later frequently used in the thesis. These terms are: work of authorship, Internet, Internet piracy. Third chapter explores copyright and its content (personal and economic rights of the author). Next chapter analyses the legal means of protection of the work of authorship. These means are provided by various areas of law (copyright law, administrative law, criminal law etc.). Fifth chapter explains functioning of peer-to-peer networks which are...