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Utilitarian and common-sense morality discussions in intercultural nursing practiceTwo areas of ethical conflict in intercultural nursing — who needs single rooms more, and how far should nurses go to comply with ethnic minority patients’ wishes? — are discussed from a utilitarian and common-sense morality point of view. These theories may mirror nurses’ way of thinking better than principled ethics, and both philosophies play a significant role in shaping nurses’ decision making. Questions concerning room allocation, noisy behaviour, and demands that nurses are unprepared or unequipped for may be hard to cope with owing to physical restrictions and other patients’ needs. Unsolvable problems may cause stress and a bad conscience as no solution is ‘right’ for all the patients concerned. Nurses experience a moral state of disequilibrium, which occurs when they feel responsible for the outcomes of their actions in situations that have no clear-cut solution.
Teaching Ethics in Religious or Cultural Conflict Situations: a Personal PerspectiveThis article portrays the unique aspects of ethics education in a multicultural, multireligious and conflict-based atmosphere among Jewish and Arab nursing students in Jerusalem, Israel. It discusses the principles and the methods used for rising above this tension and dealing with this complicated situation, based on Yoder's `bridging' method. An example is used of Jewish and Arab students together implementing two projects in 2008, when the faculty decided to co-operate with communities in East Jerusalem, the Arab side of the city. The students took it upon themselves to chaperon the teachers who came to watch them at work, translate, and facilitate interaction with a guarded and suspicious community. This approach could also be relevant to less extreme conditions in any inter-religious environment when trying to produce graduates with a strong ethical awareness.
Managing Values and Ethics in an International BankMultinational companies face serious problems when personnel in their national subsidiaries are not acting in accordance with basic principles of ‘proper behavior’ and moral standards. In this article a description is given of the way in which an internationally operating bank has formulated four company values, in order to implement basic standards in their organization on a worldwide scale. These values (integrity, respect, teamwork and professionalism) have subsequently been diffused among the bank’s subsidiaries by means of a rollout program. This article focuses on this rollout program and the way it has been received in the national subsidiaries of the bank. Data from a comparative survey in 19 countries help to understand the dynamics of this process of formulating, diffusion and reception. The article closes with some points of discussion.
A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Nurses' Ethical ConcernsThe aim of this study was to compare Swedish and Chinese nurses' experiences of ethical dilemmas and workplace distress in order to deepen understanding of the challenges neuroscience nurses encounter in different cultures. Qualitative interviews from two previously performed empirical studies in Sweden and China were the basis of this comparative study. Four common content areas were identified in both studies: ethical dilemmas, workplace distress, quality of nursing and managing distress. The themes formulated within each content area were compared and synthesized into novel constellations by means of aggregated concept analysis. Despite wide differences in the two health care systems, the nurse participants had similar experiences with regard to work stress and a demanding work situation. They were struggling with similar ethical dilemmas, which concerned seriously ill patients and the possibilities of providing good care. This indicates the importance of providing nurses with the tools to influence their own work situation and thereby reducing their work-related stress.
Is First, They Killed My Father a Cambodian testimonio?In his article "Is First, They Killed My Father a Cambodian testimonio" John T. Maddox discusses aspects of the testimonial. Dialoguing with leading Latin Americanists, Maddox argues that Cambodian writer Loung Ung's First, They Killed My Father (2000) challenges this uniqueness and opens studies on the testimonio to new possibilities for intellectual reflection and political activism. In Maddox's view, the continued use of the term testimonio would serve as a reference to this long-standing tradition of writing and thinking about political violence in Latin America. After a discussion of the debate of the definition and function of testimonio and a synopsis of Ung's work, Maddox argues that the ongoing intellectual debates regarding the testimonio, its form, its place in the literary canon, and its role in politics among Latin Americanists can also be applied to the work.