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Data Governance and the Emerging UniversityKnowledge and information governance questions are tractable primarily in institutional terms, rather than in terms of abstractions such as knowledge itself or individual or social interests. This chapter offers the modern research university as an example. Practices of data-intensive research by university-based researchers, sometimes reduced to the popular phrase “Big Data,” pose governance challenges for the university. The chapter situates those challenges in the traditional understanding of the university as an institution for understanding forms and flows of knowledge. At a broad level, the chapter argues that the new salience of data exposes emerging shifts in the social, cultural, and economic identities of the university, from missions defined in terms of knowledge as such to missions now defined in terms of data and evidence. University-based knowledge production practices framed by the distinction between basic research and “technology transfer” may no longer be sufficient as a comprehensive rhetorical and institutional paradigm for aligning the university with broad social goals or with intellectual property and information law and policy. The concept of the data-intensive university offers a general outline of a new paradigm.
Consumer Welfare and Price Discrimination: A Fine LineTraditionally, it was not feasible for businesses to determine the maximum price the buyer was willing to pay, but with the availability of big data and the deployment of sophisticated algorithms, with a great degree of precision businesses can ascertain the maximum willingness price. Some forms of price discrimination are prohibited under the Robinson-Patman Act of Antitrust (1890), provided demographic characteristics such as race and gender are the determining factors. The problem with this interpretation is that sellers are not transparent about what factors are taken into consideration when determining price. Current laws are either limited in their interpretation or inadequate to properly respond to the potential for sellers to exploit the consumer through discrimination. In this paper, we present a common pricing strategy, behavioral-based price discrimination, broadly practiced in business, particularly retailers. In general, price discrimination occurs when instead of a set price, pricing for a product is determined by what the seller knows about the customer. This includes historical data indicating what the customer is willing to pay, combined with certain personal attributes. In this scenario, the same product may be offered at different prices to different individuals or market segments. What data points are considered when designing these sophisticated pricing schemes remains a mystery. Using a dataset containing transactions collected from 2500 households, we demonstrate price discrimination empirically by linking consumer spending to certain demographic characteristics. Additionally, we address the implication of price discrimination to the economic welfare of the consumer, to market competition, and to privacy.
Company results wrap: news publishers are transforming, but into what?New research on the business models of Fairfax and APN from 2004 to 2013 confirms the two companies have failed to transform their revenue structures from print to digital. However, Fairfax CEO, Greg Hywood, argues that the company’s 2016 full year result is “proof that the [digital] transformation of Fairfax Media over recent years has succeeded". Recently, American billionaire, Warren Buffet, said that for most American newspapers “the transition to the internet so far hasn’t worked in digital. The revenues don’t come in”. He added that “local newspapers continue to decline at a very significant rate”. Despite the gloomy outlook, News Corporation is expanding its regional newspaper portfolio in Australia. The company is buying APN’s regional papers including 12 daily newspapers and 60 smaller publications.
From Old Spice to the Texas Law Hawk: How Inbound Marketing, Content Leadership and Social Media Can Level the Playing Field for Solo PractitionersThe advent of technological tools such as social media present the legal industry with the potential for both perilous liability and unparalleled rainmaking. However, the full potential of social media remains untapped in the legal field because the topic has yet to be fully integrated into a broader understanding of inbound marketing and content leadership. The current treatment of social media in the legal literature is uneven-it tends to disproportionately emphasize the potential liabilities over the benefits, and it fails to provide a thorough framework to guide its optimal use. This article aims to rectify this uneven treatment by situating social media as but a single element within an inbound marketing scheme driven by content leadership. More precisely, this article presents a hub-and-spoke model of inbound marketing in which attorneys establish themselves as content leaders (the content hub) and then create and cultivate client relationships through the spokes of social media, blogging, and search engine optimization (SEO). To support this model, this article provides a brief history of marketing along with an introduction to foundational marketing theory augmented by recent technology. Those principles are then applied to law firms through the examination of case studies in both traditional businesses and law firms. Finally, this article concludes by arguing that utilizing this model provides solo practitioners with the ability to establish a more pronounced voice for themselves, which, in effect, puts them on equal footing with larger more established firms.
First Responders Guide to Computer ForensicsThis handbook is for technical staff members charged with administering and securing information systems and networks. It targets a critical training gap in the fields of information security, computer forensics, and incident response: performing basic forensic data collection. The first module describes cyber laws and their impact on incident response. The second module builds understanding of file systems and outlines a best practice methodology for creating a trusted first responder tool kit for investigating potential incidents. The third module reviews some best practices,techniques, and tools for collecting volatile data from live Windows and Linux systems. It also explains the importance of collecting volatile data before it is lost or changed. The fourth module reviews techniques for capturing persistent data in a forensically sound manner and describes the location of common persistent data types. Each module ends with a summary and a set of review questions to help clarify understanding. This handbook was developed as part of a larger project. The incorporated slides are from the five day hands on course Forensics Guide to Incident Response for Technical Staff developed at the SEI. The focus is on providing system and network administrators with methodologies, tools, and procedures for applying fundamental computer forensics when collecting data on both a live and a powered off machine. A live machine is a machine that is currently running and could be connected to the network. The target audience includes system and network administrators, law enforcement, and any information security practitioners who may find themselves in the role of first responder.