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Local E-Government Trends: Evaluating the Adoption and Sophistication of Kentucky City WebsitesWith the prevalence of internet technologies and e-commerce, citizens’ expectations for online e-government services are growing. Numerous studies have been conducted on the worldwide adoption and sophistication of national governments’ e-government websites and state websites in the United States, but previous studies of local governments have been limited to looking at nationwide samples of the largest cities. By presenting a statewide analysis of all Kentucky city websites, I expect that my findings will provide valuable information about how cities of all sizes are using web-technologies to provide services to their citizens. I examine which types of cities, organized along several demographic variables, have implemented websites of any kind, and which of these cities have invested in sophisticated websites that enable two-way communication and facilitate online transactions. The findings show that less than 35% of Kentucky cities have websites at this time. Cities with websites have, on average, larger populations. The cities with websites also have lower median ages; lower percentages of whites, English-only speakers, home ownership, and registered Democrats; and higher city revenues and per capita revenues. Cities with even larger populations and city revenues to provide more sophisticated websites through online communication and transaction capabilities than smaller cities that provide basic websites. Lack of Internet connectivity in smaller cities also impedes the ability of citizens to use on-line services. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the effect of several demographic characteristics on e-government adoption and sophistication for Kentucky cities. Not surprisingly, statistically significant indicators for both adoption and sophistication include the city manager and mayor-council forms of government, internet availability, median age, and per capita revenue. City population was a significant indicator only for sophistication. More surprisingly, holding all other variables constant, the proportion of registered voters who are Democrats was found to have substantial impacts on both adoption and sophistication. Previous literature does little to address why this may be so.
Internet society : the Internet in everyday life /`A highly topical, interesting and lively analysis of ordinary internet use, based on both theoretically competent reflections and sound ethnographic material' - Joost van Loon, Reader in Social Theory at Nottingham Trent University Internet Society investigates internet use and it's implications for society through insights into the daily experiences of ordinary users. Drawing on an original study of non-professional, 'ordinary' users at home, this book examines how people interpret, domesticate and creatively appropriate the Internet by integrating it into the projects and activities of their everyday lives. Maria Bakardjieva's theoretical framework uniquely combines concepts from several schools of thought (social constructivism, critical theory, phenomenological sociology) to provide a conception of the user as an agent in the field of technological development and new media shaping. She: - examines the evolution of the Internet into a mass medium - interrogates what users make of this new communication medium - evaluates the social and cultural role of the Internet by looking at the immediate level of users' engagement with it - exposes the dual life of technology as invader and captive; colonizer and colonized This book will appeal to academics and researchers in social studies of technology, communication and media studies, cultural studies, philosophy of technology and ethnography.
COPYRIGHT COMPLEMENTS AND PIRACY-INDUCED DEADWEIGHT LOSSConventional wisdom suggests that copyright piracy may in effect reduce the deadweight loss resulting from copyright protection because it allows the public unlimited access to information goods at a price closer to marginal cost. It has been further contended that lower copyright protection would benefit the society as a whole, as long as authors continue to receive sufficient incentives from alternative revenue streams in any ancillary markets, e.g. touring, advertising and merchandizing. By evaluating the empirical evidence from the music, performance and videogame markets, this article highlights a counterintuitive yet important point: Copyright piracy, while decreasing the deadweight loss in the music market, could simultaneously increase the deadweight loss in ancillary markets via the interaction between complementary goods. The deadweight loss in ancillary markets tends to become dominant if a substantial portion of relevant consumers have high valuation but low frequency in music consumption, are risk averse towards upfront payment with uncertain demand, and/or discount future value at a high rate. Additionally, the findings shed new lights on the current debates on several competing propositions to reform indirect copyright liabilities in the digital age.
Stay Tuned: Whether Cloud-Based Service Providers Can Have Their Copyrighted Cake and Eat It TooCopyright owners have the exclusive right to perform their works publicly and the ability to license their work to others who want to share that right. Subsections 106(4) and (5) of the Copyright Act govern this exclusive public performance right, but neither subsection elaborates on what constitutes a performance made “to the public” versus one that remains private. This lack of clarity has made it difficult for courts to apply the Copyright Act consistently, especially in the face of changing technology. Companies like Aereo, Inc. and AereoKiller, Inc. developed novel ways to transmit content over the internet to be viewed instantly by their subscribers and declined to procure the licenses that would have been required if these transmissions were being made “to the public.” However, while these companies claimed that their activities were outside of the purview of § 106(4) and (5), their rivals, copyright owners, and the U.S. Supreme Court disagreed. Likening Aereo to a cable company for purposes of § 106(4) and (5), the Supreme Court determined that the company would need to pay for the material it streamed. Perhaps more problematic for Aereo (and other similar companies) is the fact that the Court declined to categorize Aereo as an actual cable company, such that it would qualify to pay compulsory licensing fees—the more affordable option given to cable companies under § 111—to copyright holders. This Comment shows that, while the Court correctly ruled that companies like Aereo and AereoKiller should pay for the content transmitted, its failure to address whether Aereo is a cable company could frustrate innovation to the detriment of the public. It suggests, therefore, that these companies should be required to pay for the content that they transmit in the same way that cable companies do until Congress develops another system.
Cyberspace Must Exceed Its Grasp, or What's a Metaphor? Tropes, Trips and Stumbles on the Info HighwayThis Essay will focus on three metaphors, and show briefly how the arguments that copyright law is “unworkable” in the Internet context are based on a misreading of these metaphors. The first metaphor is the use of the term “cyberspace” to apply to the Internet; the second is the tendency to describe Internet communication as “going” somewhere. Both of these metaphors mistakenly suggest a space in which enforcement—and, indeed, violation—of any law is impossible. The third metaphor is the “wine and bottles” analogy, set forth by John Perry Barlow in his widely circulated article, “The Economy of Ideas," to show the alleged inapplicability of copyright law to digital communications. This metaphor seems crafted to support an anticopyright argument that deliberately overlooks the very essence of what copyright law actually protects—not ideas, and not specific media of communication, but the original expression of authors.