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  • Critical Thinking Level among Medical Sciences Students in Iran

    Faranak Jafari; Seyyed Mohsen Azizi; Ali Soroush; Alireza Khatony (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Background. Critical thinking is one of the most important missions of the educational planning system of medical sciences universities around the world. Hence, identifying the level of critical thinking skills and tendency of medical sciences students to think critically is of great importance. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the critical thinking level in medical sciences students in Iran. Methods. To extract published studies in the field of critical thinking in Iran, a search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, and Magiran. The keywords of critical thinking, medical sciences, and Iran were used for the purpose of the search in the two languages of Persian and English and without any time limit. The PRISMA flow diagram was applied for the selection of articles, and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale was used for the evaluation of these papers. Results. After evaluating the quality of searched articles, 80 articles were finally selected for the final analysis. The total sample of the articles included 12,578 students. The results indicated that out of 51 articles conducted in the field of critical thinking skills, 48 articles reported these skills at a low level, 2 papers at a medium level, and only 1 paper at a high level in the medical sciences students. Among 29 articles in the field of the level of critical thinking disposition, 13 articles reported their tendency level at a low level, 11 articles at a medium level, and 5 articles at a high level. Conclusion. In general, based on most articles, the level of critical thinking skills in the medical sciences students in Iran was reported to be at a low level and their tendency to critical thinking at a moderate level and low level. Therefore, given the importance of critical thinking for medical sciences students, future studies should consider factors influencing the increase of the critical thinking level in these students. In this regard, formation of some training workshops can also be promising. Furthermore, reviewing the medical sciences curriculum should be taken into consideration by the policymakers and educational planners so as to strengthen the level of critical thinking in the medical sciences students.
  • Assessing Distance Learning in Higher Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Selwa El Firdoussi; Mohamed Lachgar; Hind Kabaili; Abdelali Rochdi; Driss Goujdami; Larbi El Firdoussi (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    This qualitative study is an investigation and assessment of distance learning in Morocco during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research surveyed 3037 students and 231 professors enrolled in different stages of higher education programs. It aims to investigate the limitations of e-learning platforms and how these activities take place at public and private Moroccan universities during the coronavirus confinement. For this purpose, two structured questionnaires were constructed by researchers from different specialties, and the type of data was based on the responses of students and professors from 15 universities. In this paper, we have used three methods: descriptive analysis, regression analysis, and qualitative response analysis. As a data analytics tool, Microsoft Power BI was used to analyze data, visualize it, and draw insights. In this study, both professors and students stated that online learning is not more interesting than ordinary learning and professors need to provide at least 50% of their teaching in face-to-face mode. Recommendations at teaching and technical levels, such as the need for technical support and training in the use of these tools, were provided to enhance and promote distance education in Morocco. The contribution of this paper comes as a result of data analysis obtained from a survey conducted in some famous Moroccan universities.
  • Using Guided Discovery to Improve Students’ Retention and Academic Attitudes to Financial Accounting Concepts

    Ernest O. Ugwoke; Taiwo Grace Olulowo; Ige Olugbenga Adedayo (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Financial Accounting is one of the specialised subjects in the Nigerian senior secondary school curriculum. It is no gain saying that without apposite comprehension of the subject, the goals of its inclusion in the curriculum might not be fully accomplished. Hence, the researchers are in quest of appropriate instructional strategies that entail students’ active participation and improve students’ learning outcomes (attitude and retention) through practice-oriented research. Consequently, this research determined the effectiveness of guided discovery instructional strategy, in relation to a conventional lecture, on learning outcomes of students in Financial Accounting concepts. This study adopted a nonrandomized pretest, posttest, control group quasiexperimental design with a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design. 147 secondary school students in level 5 were selected from eight secondary schools in the northern part of a Southwestern state, Nigeria. The research instruments used were Teachers’ Instructional Guides on Guided Discovery, Students’ Attitude to Financial Accounting Questionnaire (r = 0.89) and a 30-item Financial Accounting Retention Test (r = 0.83). The analyzed data affirmed that the treatment improved students’ attitude (F(1,134) = 344.935; p<0.05; η2 = 0.720) and retention (F(1,134) = 385.431; p<0.05; η2 = 0.742) of accounting concepts. This study recommended that teachers should utilize the guided discovery strategy to develop attitudes and knowledge retention of learners in Financial Accounting.
  • HARMONY OF THE ECOSYSTEM FROM THE LENS OF DELEUZIAN ASSEMBLAGE THEORY

    YUN, JI SUN (Dharmaram College, 2020-12-30)
    In the 21st century, crises like the COVID-19 pandemic and global warming require us to radically change our visions with respect to the ecological world. This paper reveals a new horizon of harmony, heralds a non-anthropocentric vision where harmony may be perceived to be a process of the combination, connection, and detachment of various elements of the ecosystem, through the lens of Deleuzian assemblage theory. My arguments re-establish a new ontological framework that is based on the new materialism proposed by Deleuze, Guattari, and DeLanda. First, we will refute the mechanical and organic notion of the harmony of the ecosystem through the concept of ‘machinic arrangement’ proposed by Deleuze and Guattari. This will allow the traditional notion of harmonious world to be seen as an anthropocentric projection. Next, we will examine the notion of the world and that of harmony through complexity theory and chaos theory, which have guided the arguments of Deleuze, demonstrating the forces of dynamic interactions of elements which produce a fundamental change in the perspective of the ecological horizon. This revises the anthropocentric perspective, which distributes a finality to the world, to direct us toward a non-anthropocentric perspective, and a new materialist vision which consists in changing our ontological framework as well as our relationship with the ecological world.
  • NON-ANTHROPOCENTRIC AND DYNAMIC VISION OF HARMONY

    Yun, Ji-Yeong (Dharmaram College, 2020-12-30)
    This article deconstructs the static approach to harmony and elucidates its dynamic dimension. First, I provide critical analysis of Plato’s functionalist notion of harmony in the Republic, where harmony is viewed not as the suspension of the power relationship between the dominant and subjugated, but as the establishment of the relationship of domination that gives rise to the governability of one’s own soul and the city, and, further, contributes to the stability of the self and the system. Second, I emphasize the Aristotelian anthropocentric perspective of harmony in the Politics, where harmony is considered a fraternity of the political animal that shares the logical capacity of speech and excludes the inhuman. Third, through the lens of Latour’s new materialism, I seek to redefine harmony as a dynamic process and as material assemblages between humans and non-humans that foster creative tensions and increase the intensity of agency.

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