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Future Fellowships - Grant ID: FT130100097Disability is a major area of Australian reform, and digital technology is key to securing historic goals of full social participation. This project offers the first comprehensive investigation of how we invent, design, implement, and regulate technology for people with disabilities. It will provide a theory of disability and technology, with case studies including mobiles, e-readers, and health technologies. The project will examine human rights aspects of technology in the United Nations disability convention, and their relation to global media policy. The project will propose better ways to align human rights frameworks, policy, and technology design to ensure digital participation for Australians with disability.
Media and Education in the Digital AgeThis book is an invitation to informed and critical participation in the current debate on the role of digital technology in education and a comprehensive introduction to the most relevant issues in this debate. After an early wave of enthusiasm about the emancipative opportunities of the digital «revolution» in education, recent contributions invite caution, if not scepticism. This collection rejects extreme interpretations and establishes a conceptual framework for the critical questioning of this role in terms of concepts, assessments and subversions. This book offers conceptual tools, ideas and insights for further research. It also provides motivation and information to foster active participation in debates and politics and encourages teachers, parents and learners to take part in the making of the future of our societies.
Why is there so little critical physical education scholarship in the United States? The case of FitnessgramIn posing the question in our title, we have set ourselves the task of trying to understand why so little scholarly scrutiny and questioning of Fitnessgram—a product designed to assist in the school-based physical fitness testing of young people—exists in the country of its origin and then consider the implications of this silence. We begin our interrogation by offering a broad definition of ‘critical scholarship’. We then briefly describe the contemporary landscape of physical education research and its preoccupation with an instrumental and applied approach to scholarship that seems limited to questions about ‘what works’ in schools. Following this overview we discuss the scholarship of Fitnessgram. Our analysis focuses on the increasing influence of various webs of connection between academics, professional organizations, corporations, funding agencies and publishing outlets. To substantiate the claims we make, we offer some examples from the recent history of abstracts accepted for presentation at prominent national conferences and discuss the contents of leading United States health and physical education journals. The overwhelming apparent message emanating from these scholarly outlets is that school and university personnel should simply fall into line with the mandates of government and public health advocates when it comes to the implementation of Fitnessgram. Our review reveals that the Fitnessgram literature suffers from a lack of counter-balancing scepticism particularly when it comes to the interpretation of research findings. As we will argue, virtually no critical scholarship of any kind exists on the use of Fitnessgram, a remarkable situation given recent public policy developments that call for its expanded adoption in United States schools.
The Impact of Digital Technologies on Routine TasksThere is a strong concern that
technology is increasingly replacing routine tasks,
displacing lower-skilled workers. Labor market institutions
exist to protect workers from shocks but, by increasing
labor costs, labor policy may also constrain firms from
adjusting the workforce and, hence, from fully benefiting
from technology adoption. This paper assesses the link
between access to digital technologies and the demand for
skills in the largest Latin American country, Brazil.
Between 1996 and 2006, the country experienced a period of
strong growth in Internet service provision, as well as in
the enforcement of labor market regulations at the
subnational level. The paper's empirical strategy
exploits administrative data to assess the extent to which
the adoption of digital technology affects employment and
the skill content of jobs at the local level. In addition,
the paper investigates whether the stringency of labor
regulations influences this adjustment, by comparing the
effect across industries subject to different degrees of
enforcement of labor regulations. Using the fact that
industries vary in the degree of reliance on digital
technologies, the estimates suggest that digital technology
adoption leads to a reduction in employment in local labor
markets. The decrease in employment is larger for routine
tasks, thereby shifting the composition of the workforce
toward nonroutine, cognitive skills. However, and in
contrast with labor policy intentions, the evidence points
to the idea that labor market regulations differentially
benefit the skilled workforce, particularly those workers
employed in nonroutine, cognitive tasks.
Labor Policy and Digital Technology UseThis paper exploits variation in
country-level indicators drawn from published data to
analyze the relationship between labor regulation and the
use of digital technology. The analysis shows a
statistically and economically significant association
between digital technology use by firms and a country's
statutory minimum wage and employment protection
regulations. The results are robust to the inclusion of
controls for level of development, economic stability,
available infrastructure, and trade openness. To ensure the
broadest country coverage, the paper develops new indexes of
employment protection, using the World Bank's Doing
Business indicators, which allow several aspects of labor
market regulation—such as restrictions on hours and hiring,
dismissal procedures, and severance costs--to be analyzed separately.