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  • Rwanda Economic Update, January 2020 : Accelerating Digital Transformation in Rwanda

    World Bank (World Bank, Kigali, 2020-01-28)
    This edition’s forecast of Rwanda’s
 economic growth for 2019 is revised upward from the 7.8
 percent projected in the REU14 to 8.5 percent. The stronger
 growth is driven mostly by the unexpected magnitude of the
 fiscal expansion. Medium-term growth also looks strong with
 annualgrowth projected to be about 8 percent. Although the
 current public investment push will continuein the
 medium-term, this issue’s high growth scenario assumes that
 the role of the private sector in investment will grow;
 public investments alone may not sustain growth at 8 percent
 over themedium-term. The medium-term outlook assumes that
 debt will accumulate faster than was projected in REU14. The
 primary explanation is the large fiscal expansion of 2019.
 Fiscal deficit for 2020 will continue to be well above the
 historical average. Despite the increasing indebtedness,
 reliance on concessional financing will help keep Rwanda’s
 debt sustainable. In the medium term, the CAD will again
 stay high, hitting 10 percent of GDP. Monetary policy will
 remain accommodative, although with the return of inflation
 to the “normal” range and continuing pressures on the
 exchange rate and reserves, the policy space has narrowed.
 The risks to Rwanda’s economic outlook, both domestic and
 external, have risen. The main risk is the growing reliance
 on public-sectored investments. Fiscal expansion to achieve
 the government’s targets for expanding access to
 infrastructure raises the debt, widens external imbalances,
 and may crowd out access of the private sector to finance,
 thus undermining long-term growth. If the reliance on the
 public sector persists, Rwanda may have difficulties in
 financing its growth model. Rwanda’s commitment
 toconcessional borrowing and monetary stability reduces the
 risks to macroeconomic stability, but overall fiscal risks
 has gone up because of the reliance on the public sector for
 achieving NST1growth targets. Despite continuing efforts,
 the ineffectiveness of the private sector remains a major
 risk to Rwanda’s growth outlook--growth projections for the
 medium to long term depend on the ability of the private
 sector to take the lead. As the fiscal expansion for NST1
 subsides in the medium term, it will become increasingly
 difficult to keep the growth rate at 8 percent without
 increased private sector investment. Now, to achieve
 sustainable and productivity-led growth, attention must turn
 to improving allocation of economic resources through better
 market functioning.
  • Towards Accountable Systems (Dagstuhl Seminar 18181)

    David Eyers and Christopher Millard and Margo Seltzer and Jatinder Singh; Eyers, David; Millard, Christopher; Seltzer, Margo; Singh, Jatinder (Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer InformatikDagstuhl Reports. Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 8, Issue 4, 2018)
    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 18181 "Towards Accountable Systems", which took place from April 29th to May 4th, 2018, at Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics. Researchers and practitioners from academia and industry were brought together covering broad fields from computer and information science, public policy and law. Many risks and opportunities were discussed that relate to the alignment of systems technologies with developing legal and regulatory requirements and evolving user expectations. This report summarises outcomes of the seminar by highlighting key future research directions and challenges that lie on the path to developing systems that better align with accountability concerns.
  • 情報教育としての国語表現指導 : インターネットに対応することば認識の涵養

    中村, 吉秀; 坂田, 兼続 (2009-04-04)
    Mainly, the "Information Education" currently performed in schools various now has much instruction of "the directions of a computer", and has brought a result in which a child and youth hold various problems including the trouble by the Internet. This paper proposes the state of the "language education" corresponding to the future time to the bottom of recognition that "language education" is "language information processing education" from the field of text expression instruction.
  • The Tethered Economy

    Perzanowski, Aaron K.; Hoofnagle, Chris Jay; Kesari, Aniket (Case Western Reserve University School of Law Scholarly Commons, 2019-01-01)
    Imagine a future in which every purchase decision is as complex as choosing a mobile phone. What will ongoing service cost? Is it compatible with other devices you use? Can you move data and applications across de- vices? Can you switch providers? These are just some of the questions one must consider when a product is “tethered” or persistently linked to the seller. The Internet of Things, but more broadly, consumer products with embedded software, are already tethered. While tethered products bring the benefits of connection, they also carry its pathologies. As sellers blend hardware and software—as well as product and service—tethers yoke the consumer to a continuous post-transaction rela- tionship with the seller. The consequences of that dynamic will be felt both at the level of individual consumer harms and on the scale of broader, economy- wide effects. These consumer and market-level harms, while distinct, reinforce and amplify one another in troubling ways. Seller contracts have long sought to shape consumers’ legal rights. But in a tethered environment, these rights may become nonexistent as legal processes are replaced with automated technological enforcement. In such an environment, the consumer-seller relationship becomes extractive, more akin to consumers captive in an amusement park than to a competitive marketplace in which many sellers strive to offer the best product for the lowest price. At the highest level, consumer protection law is concerned with promot- ing functioning free markets and insulating consumers from harms stemming from information asymmetries. We conclude by exploring legal options to re- duce the pathologies of the tethered economy.
  • Survey on Revocation in Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption

    Ruqayah R. Al-Dahhan; Qi Shi; Gyu Myoung Lee; Kashif Kifayat (MDPI AG, 2019-04-01)
    Recently, using advanced cryptographic techniques to process, store, and share datasecurely in an untrusted cloud environment has drawn widespread attention from academicresearchers. In particular, Ciphertext‐Policy Attribute‐Based Encryption (CP‐ABE) is a promising,advanced type of encryption technique that resolves an open challenge to regulate fine‐grainedaccess control of sensitive data according to attributes, particularly for Internet of Things (IoT)applications. However, although this technique provides several critical functions such as dataconfidentiality and expressiveness, it faces some hurdles including revocation issues and lack ofmanaging a wide range of attributes. These two issues have been highlighted by many existingstudies due to their complexity which is hard to address without high computational cost affectingthe resource‐limited IoT devices. In this paper, unlike other survey papers, existing single andmultiauthority CP‐ABE schemes are reviewed with the main focus on their ability to address therevocation issues, the techniques used to manage the revocation, and comparisons among themaccording to a number of secure cloud storage criteria. Therefore, this is the first review paperanalysing the major issues of CP‐ABE in the IoT paradigm and explaining the existing approachesto addressing these issues.

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