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  • "People...Do Not Come with Standardized Circumstances": Toward A Model for an Anthropology of E-Government

    Hebert, Marc K. (Scholar Commons, 2012-01-01)
    Many Americans appreciate the availability and ease of using government websites to conduct their business with the state. What then of the most vulnerable in society? How do they access and use a standardized application process for government assistance, considering their potential resource, educational and physical constraints? Many go to public libraries and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which shifts the responsibility to help applicants from the government agency administering the program to local actors whose primary duties lie elsewhere. The aim of this research is to document the experiences of three groups of people, primarily located in a central Florida, urban environment, who interact with an electronic government (e-government) program known as "ACCESS." This program is an online application for lower-income Floridians seeking food, medical and temporary cash assistance. ACCESS is part of the growth in e-government where public information and services are placed online. The first group of stakeholders in this research is the applicants themselves who frequent public libraries and NGOs, seeking technological access and assistance with the ACCESS program. The second group is the employees at these locations who provide varying levels of support to the applicants. Finally, there are the employees of the Florida Department of Children and Families (DCF) who created and continue to manage the program. The formal research process involved ethnographic methods spread over 16 months, including participant-observation, semi-structured interviews, free listing and think alouds with the applicants and those who help them at libraries and NGOs. No DCF employee agreed to participate in the research, leading to a reliance on reports either produced by DCF, or shared with them by other government agencies about the ACCESS program. The data from the above methods were used to construct a survey, administered to a largely different group of ACCESS applicants and employees at the same public libraries and NGOs. The interpretation of findings was informed by the anthropological literature on U.S. poverty studies and public policy as well as the disciplines of e-government and design. The findings produced a model for analyzing e-government anthropologically. The model arose to fill several gaps in the literature. First, little work in U.S. anthropology deals with e-government and e-governance. Second, triangulation through ethnographic methods is not widespread within e-government research. Finally, the model demonstrates that the "audit culture" or evaluative norms and assumed ideologies of assessing e-government can shape program design, maintenance, and ultimately the experiences of users or citizens. The model is instructive and emergent, intended as a strategy to encourage further research about e-government.
  • ICT for governance and policy modelling: Research challenges and future prospects in Europe

    Charalabidis, Y; Lampathaki, F; Misuraca, G; Osimo, D (2014-03-01)
    As the role of government in the society is undergoing continuous change, consensus is starting to build around the potential that collaborative technologies have in the field of governance and policy modeling. For effective citizen empowerment and participation to become mainstream, at a greater scale, several challenges will have to be faced, which will require new tools to be developed. The research questions underlying the present paper are: which new ICT-enabled governance models and methods of monitoring, interaction, collaboration for policy making and enforcement are emerging, and which policy modelling mechanisms can be implemented in order to effectively involve citizens in decision making? The paper starts addressing these issues by defining the problem statement and discussing the changing role of the government in the Information Society, also proposing some elements for a conceptualisation of ICT for governance and policy modelling. It further presents the evolving debate on the e-Government and e-Governance agenda developments, as well as the state of the art and the limitations of research in these fields. Main emerging trends and future prospects within the evolving public sector are then anticipated in order to draw some preliminary conclusions outlining the challenges ahead and future research in the field of ICT for governance and policy modelling. © 2012 IEEE.
  • Interfaces atuais entre a E-Justiça e a Q-Justiça no Brasil Actual interfaces between Q-Justice and E-Justice in Brazil

    Cesar Antonio Serbena (Universidade Federal do Paraná, 2013-03-01)
    Atualmente o sistema judicial brasileiro vive um período de rápida transformação. Os cartórios judiciais, os tribunais estaduais, federais e tribunais superiores informatizaram ou parcialmente ou integralmente todo o trâmite processual. Com a informatização da gestão dos processos judiciais, dos cartórios e dos tribunais, praticamente o escritório do advogado e das partes do processo, como o Ministério Público, fica incorporado ao processo. Para que um advogado peticione e atue no processo, ele não precisa mais deslocar-se até o fórum, basta acessar um terminal de computador. O chefe de secretaria também tende a desaparecer, pois com a eliminação do processo físico, toda a gestão processual passa a ser gerida por um sistema. Esta é a chamada Justiça eletrônica ou E-Justiça. De forma concomitante com esse processo de informatização, houve a implantação de um sistema de coleta de dados e de análise estatística do Poder Judiciário, assim como um sistema de avaliação de sua performance, através de índices específicos. Este sistema pode ser denominado Justiça quantitativa ou Q-Justiça. No presente trabalho, analisamos as interfaces atuais entre a E-Justiça e a Q-Justiça, ou seja, descrevemos os principais sistemas de coleta de dados do Poder Judiciário brasileiro, indicamos algumas observações de ordem metodológica relativa à disponibilização pública dos dados e à pesquisa estatística com dados judiciais, e apontamos as perspectivas futuras da métrica judicial com relação às novas tecnologias computacionais, como a mineração de dados e computação em nuvem.<br>Actually the Brazilian judicial system is going through a period of rapid transformation. The state courts and the superior and federal courts have partially or fully computerized the judicial procedure. This is called electronic Justice or E-Justice. Concomitantly with this process of computerization, there was the establishment of a system of data collection and statistical analysis of the judiciary, as well as an evaluation system of his performance through specific indices. This system can be called quantitative Justice or Q-Justice. In this paper, we analyze the actual interfaces between the E-Justice and Q-Justice, ie, we describe the main systems of data collection of the Brazilian Judiciary, we indicate some methodological remarks on publishing on web the public data and on statistical research with judicial data, and point out the future prospects of the judicial metrics toward new computing technologies such as data mining and cloud computing.
  • Quellensteuern auf Rechteüberlassungen, Rechteübertragungen und Dienstleistungen bei digitalen Geschäftsmodellen Gebietsfremder in Deutschland de lege lata und de lege ferenda

    Anzinger, Heribert M.; Kloß, Katrin; Anzinger, Heribert M. (Universität Ulm, 2020-03-16)
    In der analogen Welt lassen sich klare Grenzen zwischen der Übertragung und der Überlassung der Nutzung einer Sache beschreiben. Das internationale Steuerrecht knüpft an diese Grenzen an, etwa in den Vorschriften über Quellensteuern auf Entgelte für Nutzungsüberlassungen. Während das Nutzungsentgelt im Schuldnerstaat belastet wird, trifft das Erwerbsentgelt diese Belastung nicht. In der digitalen Welt fällt es schwer, zwischen Übertragung und bloßer Nutzungsüberlassung beliebig zu teilbarer und vervielfältigbarer immaterieller Werte zu unterscheiden. Hinzu kommt die Frage, ob Eigenschaftserweiterungen, als Dienstleistung oder Rechteüberlassung zu qualifizieren sind. Die Arbeit von Frau Kloß widmet sich diesen Kernfragen der Besteuerung grenzüberschreitender digitaler Geschäftsmodelle. Sie strukturiert bestehende Anknüpfungsmerkmale und Verteilungsregeln im nationalen und internationalen Steuerrecht und diskutiert exemplarisch einige bedeutsame Anwendungsfälle im geltenden Recht. Dort endet ihre Arbeit aber nicht, sondern sie greift, meinungsstark, darüber hinaus aktuelle rechtspolitische Diskussionen auf. Wer den Einstieg in diese höchst praxisrelevante Problematik sucht, liest diese im 2. Halbjahr 2019 enstandene Masterarbeit mit großem Gewinn.
  • Analýza možností a návrh inovace informačního systému zdravotnického zařízení s použitím cloud computingových služeb

    Tvrdíková, Milena; Jurášek, Martin (Vysoká škola báňská - Technická univerzita Ostrava, 2013-06-26)
    Práce se zaměřuje na všudypřítomný trend cloud computingu a jeho využití v rámci informačního systému nemocnice. V rámci teoretické části práce vymezuje základní charakteristiky a distribuční modely cloud computingu. Dále pak určuje základní prvky softwarového práva, které vymezují životní cyklus IT outsourcingu, ochranu dat a ochranu osobních údajů. Praktická část této práce analyzuje stávající stav informačního systému nemocnice a navrhuje možnosti inovace informačního systému s použitím cloud computingové technologie. Pro přechod do veřejného cloudu práce využívá kancelářského a ekonomického softwaru. Pro privátní cloud byla využita serverová a desktopová virtualizace.

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