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  • Challenges When Using Jurimetrics in Brazil—A Survey of Courts

    Bruna Armonas Colombo; Pedro Buck; Vinicius Miana Bezerra (MDPI AG, 2017-10-01)
    Jurimetrics is the application of quantitative methods, usually statistics, to law. An important step to implement a jurimetric analysis is to extract raw data from courts and organize that data in a way that can be processed. Most of the raw data is unstructured and written in natural language, which stands as a challenge to Computer Science experts. As it requires expertise in law, statistics, and computer science, jurimetrics is a multidisciplinary field. When trying to implement a jurimetric system in Brazil, additional challenges were identified due to the heterogeneity of the different court systems, the lack of standards, and how the open data laws in Brazil are interpreted and implemented. In this article, we present a survey of Brazilian courts in terms of readiness to implement a jurimetric system. Analyzing a sample of data, we have found, in light of Brazil’s open data regulation, privacy issues and technical issues. Finally, we propose a roadmap that encompasses both technology and public policy to meet those challenges.
  • Internet jako miejsce prowadzenia kampanii wyborczej na przykładzie kampanii prezydenckiej Baracka Obamy z 2012 roku.

    Gac, Jakub
    Głównym tematem pracy dyplomowej jest przedstawienie realiów prowadzenia kampanii wyborczych w przestrzeni internetowej. Cyberprzestrzeń wyewoluowała do znaczącego medium we współczesnym świecie polityki, który staje się coraz szerzej wykorzystywany przez sztaby wyborcze oraz polityków. Tłem do opisu pracy jest postać Baracka Obamy oraz działania jego sztabu wyborczego podczas 57 kampanii prezydenckiej Stanów Zjednoczonych. I rozdział pracy ma charakter teorytyczny, którego przedmiotem opisu jest zdefiniowanie komunikacji wyborczej w przestrzeni internetowej, oraz opisie czterech najpopularniejszych portali społecznościowych. Przedmiotem rozważań w II rozdziale pracy jest kreowanie wizerunku oraz definiowanie skutecznej reklamy politycznej w marketingu politycznym. Rozdział III dotyczy bezpośrednio postaci Baracka Obamy, oraz działań jego w kreowaniu wizerunku internetowego. Jest on przestrzenią opisową wobec ikony na jaką został wykreowany ówczesny prezydent Stanów Zjednoczonych. Rozdział IV dotyczy głównie działań sztabu wyborczego Baracka Obamy podczas kampanii wyborczej. Dokonano w nim opisu komunikacji wyborczej Obamy w mediach społecznościowych, ponadto dokonano opisu i analizy platformy Dashboard. Porównano wyniki popularności Baracka Obamy oraz Mitta Romneya. Podstawę do napisania pracy w dużym stopniu stanowiła literatura przedmiotu, artykuły internetowe, a także materiały źródłowe w postaci obrazów oraz grafik. Do zbadania głównego problemu stosowane były elementy metody analizy i krytyki literatury przedmiotu, artykułów internetowych oraz elementów wizualnych oraz analizy studium przypadków. Techniki badawcze, które zostaną wykorzystane to analiza, uogólnianie, porównanie oraz wnioskowanie dedukcyjne.
  • Service-Oriented Foreign Direct Investment: Legal and Policy Frameworks Protecting Digital Assets in Offshoring Information Technology (IT) - Enabled Services

    Mishago, Tilahun (GGU Law Digital Commons, 2012-04-01)
    This thesis examines challenges caused by global cyberspace, which continues to undermine the ability of regulatory instruments aimed at cyber security and deterring cybercrime so that digital assets including those associated with Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) are protected. Progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has brought about both challenges and opportunities for mankind. While ICT has enabled seamless communication on cyberspace, it has also made every phenomenon, positive or negative on cyberspace possible. The good side of ICT is the endless opportunities provided to harness multiple features and capabilities of associated technologies while its side effect being the enormous security challenge on cyberspace. Legal and policy frameworks are needed to help mitigate cyber security threats and safeguard digital assets against such threats while promoting the benefits of ICT. To this end nations attempt to regulate cyberspace within their territories, but may quickly find out that issues on cyberspace are both global and national at the same time, and as such not fully controllable at national levels only. If nations cannot fully regulate ICT and cyberspace, this will have negative implications for digital investor’s assets in their territories as well. That is investor’s information assets may not be adequately safeguarded by means of national legal instruments. This dissertation seeks to analyze the question as to whether it is entirely possible for nation-states to address the multifaceted challenges introduced by cyberspace with appropriate national legal and policy frameworks alone to protect digital investments. This dissertation argues that, on the one hand, nations are behind in providing proper regulatory coverage for cyberspace, while, on the other hand, existing regulations have largely been unsuccessful in containing cyber security threats primarily due to complications caused by the ubiquitous global presence of cyberspace per se. Consequently, investor’s digital assets are more susceptible to unauthorized access and use, or destruction, all of which cannot be fully accounted for with currently available legal or technical means. There is a strong indication that digital investor assets demand more protection efforts from both investors and forum nations alike compared to what is needed to protect and promote traditional FDI.
  • Comércio eletrônico e a proteção de dados do consumidor

    Pereira, Flavia do Canto; Stelter, Debora Nunes (2018-05-31)
    O Comércio eletrônico é uma modalidade de comércio onde a compra é realizada em qualquer local e horário, desde que esteja conectado à Internet. Essa modalidade vem se expandindo cada vez mais na sociedade, fazendo com que a proteção dos dados do consumidor que esteja realizando a compra seja protegida, afim de que não ocorra utilização indevida e não permitida. Face o crescimento da população em utilizar o comércio eletrônico, surgem necessidades que devem receber amparo, caso ocorra alguma violação a um direito. Diante disso, a proteção de dados do consumidor recebeu novo amparo legal com o advento da Lei 12.965/2014 (Marco Civil da Internet) que veio para dar proteção ao consumidor frente às transações realizadas através comércio eletrônico. Assim, o estudo irá mostrar as formas de proteção e reparação dos dados do consumidor quando alguma informação for violada.
  • Söktjänsteleverantörer & ansvarsskydd

    Rexö, Filip (Lunds universitet/Juridiska institutionen, 2016)
    Internet har inneburit en förändring ur många många aspekter. Tekniken har medfört förändringar för hur vi kommunicerar, samlar in och delar med oss information och material m.m. Denna utveckling har medfört ett flertal intressekonflikter. Det kan handla om att skyddat material, till exempel upphovsrättsskyddad musik, kan spridas utan rättighetsinnehavarens medgivande eller att personuppgifter eller information om en enskild person sprids på nätet. Dessa intressekonflikter kan i flera avseenden hanteras genom existerande rättsregler och rättsprinciper. I andra avseenden har ny reglering införts. Bland annat har E-handelsdirektivet införts som bland annat harmoniserar medlemsstaternas regler för tjänsteleverantörer som tidigare reglerades separat inom varje medlemsstat. I direktivet återfinns ett ansvarsskydd för tjänstelevererande mellanhänder som levererar någon av informationssamhällets tjänster. Detta ansvarsskydd har införts för att skydda tjänstelevererande mellanhänder från ansvar för olika lagbrott. Motivet bakom detta ansvarsskydd är att skydda dessa mellanhänder på grund av att de ofta hanterar stora mängder information och har svårt att kontrollera all information som passerar genom deras tjänster. En tolkningsproblematik som vuxit fram är huruvida söktjänsteleverantörer skall omfattas av detta ansvarsskydd. Frågan om tillämpligheten och omfattningen av ansvarsskyddet har vid ett antal tillfällen prövats av EU-domstolen men har i dagslägen inte prövats i förhållande till söktjänsteleverantörer. Denna uppsats tar sikte på att utreda huruvida söktjänsteleverantörer omfattas eller bör omfattas av detta ansvarsskydd.

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