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  • Safety Science, a Systems Thinking Perspective: From Events to Mental Models and Sustainable Safety

    Peter Blokland; Genserik Reniers (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    In the past one hundred years, concepts such as risk, safety and security have become ever more important and they represent a growing concern in our society. These concepts are also important subjects of study to enhance sustainability. During the past fifty years, safety science has gradually developed as an independent field of science. In this period, different concepts, theories, models and research traditions have emerged, each with its specific perspective. Safety science is now focused on finding ways to proactively achieve safety versus reaching safety in a reactive way. We think this increasing awareness and search for proactiveness can be found and presented when viewed in light of the systems thinking iceberg model, where increasing awareness and proactiveness can be seen as digging deeper into this systems thinking iceberg, discovering the levels of systems, structures and ultimately the mental models that are “below the waterline”. It offers a way forward in understanding, and proactively managing, risk, safety, security and sustainable performance, in organizations and ultimately in society as a whole.
  • The YouTube Marketing Communication Effect on Cognitive, Affective and Behavioural Attitudes among Generation Z Consumers

    Rodney Duffett (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    YouTube (YT) is the largest online video digital channel with more than 2 billion users, and over a billion hours of YT videos are viewed every day, particularly among young consumers. YT has become a massive marketing communication platform, which serves as a medium to target the lucrative Generation Z cohort (first born in the late 1990s), and influence this generation’s infamously unpredictable purchase decision process. The main aim of this paper was to consider the effect of YouTube marketing communication (YMC) on the traditional and non-traditional attitudinal associations of response hierarchy models. A multi-stage sample technique was used and 3750 high school and college learners (aged 13–18 years old) were surveyed via self-administered questionnaires in South Africa. Structural equation modelling was utilised to consider the hypothesised attitudinal associations. The research determined that YMC had a positive influence on the hypothesised attitudinal associations, and young consumers who used YT for fewer years, logged on more frequently, spent shorter time periods on the platform, viewed higher numbers of commercials, aged 13–14 years old, and from the White population group exhibited the most positive attitudinal responses. Hence, organisations should review their strategies in order to develop more sustainable YMC owing to the heterogeneity evident among young African consumers.
  • Smart Tourism Sustainability Narratives in Mature Beach Destinations. Contrasting the Collective Imaginary with Reality

    Joan Miquel Gomis-López; Francesc González-Reverté (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    This<b> </b>article contributes to the analysis of the relationship between urban renewal processes and sustainable development in mature beach destinations and the adoption of smart tourism. It takes as its case study Spanish destinations taking part in publicly-funded projects and plans designed to convert them into so-called "smart destinations" (SD). Its chief goals are to identify, through the Delphi technique, the smart tourism narrative behind the drive for creating SD, as well as to see how good a fit this is with the strategic positionings of mature destinations seeking to halt their decline or take on a new lease of life by introducing sustainability measures. Based on a review of the existing literature, we perform a critical analysis of this narrative to expose the contradictions arising when it is applied as a tool for urban renewal based on the implementation of sustainability strategies. The results aid with progress in two directions. Firstly, the article contributes new conceptual elements on the role of SD in the urban transformation of tourist destinations as a response to the challenges of global competitiveness. The second contribution, which is applied in nature and based on the study of a variety of Spanish tourist destinations, analyzes the impact the application of smart tourism-based technological solutions may have upon sustainability. Specifically, it examines the actions of different mass tourism beach destinations and discusses their actual ability to foster renewal in the field of tourism and offer solutions for overcoming urban sustainability problems. Lastly, it offers some recommendations for mature beach destination managers interested in implementing smart tourism projects based on sustainability criteria.
  • Infrastructures and Sustainability: An Estimation Model for a New Highway near Genoa

    Paolo Rosasco; Leopoldo Sdino (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    The economic development of a territory is strongly correlated to its level of infrastructure (railway, roads, etc.); the complexity of this type of works requires careful planning and design that cannot be separated from the assessment of the impacts generated on citizenship affected by the new infrastructures. This study deals with the instrument defined by the Liguria Region for the implementation of infrastructures through the instruments called “Programmi Regionali di Intervento Strategico—P.R.I.S.” (Regional Strategic Intervention Programs) established by the Regional Law n. 39/2007. The aim of the P.R.I.S. is to guarantee the social protection of citizens that reside (as owners or tenants) or carry out economic activities in real estate units incompatible with the construction of the infrastructure, according to the main Italian law (Presidential Decree n. 327/2001) about the expropriation of private real estate for the construction of public works. In particular, the construction of a new link of the A7-A10-A12 motorway sections near the city of Genoa (called “Gronda”) is considered. The new infrastructure involves the expropriation of about 100 residential units and the relocation of about 50 production activities; the related P.R.I.S. defines the conditions that allow social cohesion through the recognition of indemnities for the expropriation of the real estate properties and the compensation of other expenses that the residents have to pay for their relocation. The valuation of the indemnities is developed through a multi-parameter model applicable for the estimation of real estate units (residential and productive) at a large-scale (mass appraisal); it is derived from the Market Comparison Approach and considers the most meaningful real estate characteristics. The aim is to develop a mass appraisal estimation model applicable in an easy way on real estate units with different destinations use. The model can be applied for the estimation of ordinary and special indemnities to be recognized for owners and tenants affected by the expropriation of their real estate units for the construction of public projects.
  • New Evidence for Romania Regarding Dynamic Causality between Military Expenditure and Sustainable Economic Growth

    Ran Tao; Oana Ramona Glonț; Zheng-Zheng Li; Oana Ramona Lobonț; Adina Alexandra Guzun (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    Military spending and sustainable economic development have been widely discussed in recent decades. Especially in Romania, the defense budget is valued at $4.8 billion, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 23.57%. It is also expected to reach $7.6 billion in 2023, according to a report by Strategic Defense Intelligence. There is no consensus in current research and less attention is paid to Eastern European countries. Considering the significant increase in military spending in Romania in recent years, as well as the occurrence of political events, this paper focuses on the dynamic causal relationship between military spending and sustainable economic growth in Romania. The bootstrap rolling window causality test takes into account the structural changes, and therefore, provides more convincing results. The results indicate negative effects of military expenditure on sustainable economic growth between 1996–1999 and 2002–2004. It can be attributed to the crowding-out effect of public expenditure on private investment. The positive effect between the two variables analyzed is noticed with the accession of Romania to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Conversely, it is found that economic growth does not have a significant effect on military spending in Romania. Policymakers should guard against the crowding out of private consumption and investment due to excessive military spending and ensure to increase military expenditure on the premise of sustainable economic development.

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