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Privacy Laws in the Blockchain EnvironmentThe compatibility between emerging technology such as Blockchain and the new data protection obligations has been a matter of discussion since the European General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) came into force back in 2018. The main reason is that GDPR is considered the Regulation that has incorporated the strongest obligations and enforcement consequences. There are some areas of tension on how to comply with these obligations, some of which are still a matter of discussion that have not been concluded by regulators or in court. In this chapter, I set out an overview of the main obligations, relevant areas of tension and set out an opinion on what I have seen that in practice is working the best, and how I recommend dealing with these issues in practice, in order to do an assessment applied to a particular context in which a Blockchain network is used.
Measuring e-government development : the haves and the have-notsSince 2003, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) continued to measure the e-government development across the world using a range of indices. The UNDESA produces a biannual report that ranks UN member states according to their most recent e-government development indices. These reports are widely used by egovernment officials to benchmark their country’s performance. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether there has been a significant change in the rankings of the 191 countries that participated in both the 2005 and 2016 surveys using quantitative research methods. To meet the research objectives, the study uses correlation analysis and cluster analysis technique. The correlation analysis is used to assess the degree of association between the 2005 and 2016 rankings, while the cluster analysis technique was used to segment countries into groups based on their 2005 and 2016 rankings in order to detect any significant shift in the cluster membership in each country. The results obtained reveal a strong positive correlation between the 2005 and 2016 e-government development indices, indicating a little variation occurred in the overall ranking of the countries during this period. Also, the cluster analysis results revealed that there are three distinct groups of countries/segments: Leaders, Laggards and Average performing countries. The results also disclosed that there was a little change in countries’ cluster-membership between 2005 and 2016 indicating that countries that were ranked high in 2005 survey are still leading in 2016, and the countries that were struggling in 2005 are still struggling today.
Informační politika Finské republikyDiplomová práce nesoucí název Informační politika Finské republiky popisuje současný stav finského e-governmentu. V textu nalezneme zmínku o Finském úřadě pro regulaci informací, který nese zkráceně název FICORA. Tento úřad náleží pod Ministerstvo dopravy a komunikace a má na starosti veškerou agendu spojenou se zpřístupňováním informací, jejich ochranu, ale také jejich bezpečný přenos. S ochranou dat organizaci pomáhá Národní bezpečnostní autorita neboli NSA. Text popisuje finskou informační politiku, její počátky, současnost i strategii na budoucí období. Odhaluje struktury a organizaci celého informačního aparátu, poukazuje na překážky, se kterými se musela finská vláda při zavádění e-governmentu vypořádat a jaká doporučení bylo státu uděleno ze strany OECD. Dále jsou v práci uvedeny nejdůležitější portály, strategické plány a projekty Ministerstva financí, které celý projekt e-governmentu zaštituje.
Pojem "informační politika" z hlediska evropských kontinentálních a amerických tradicDissertation deals with the problem of information policy and its development. Information policy and e-Government is defined. The emphasis is put mainly on the history and development of information policy in The United States and Europe, represented by the European Union, Germany and France, from which the current EU policy draws. In conclusion, a comparison is made, to confront American and European attitude along with several cases about the conditions of information policy in the Czech Republic. Keywords information policy, e-government, public administration, information infrastructure, legislative, Europe, USA
E-government and e-governance : Swedish case studies with focus on the local levelThe concepts of e-government and e-governance are used interchangeably in most research and there is no single definition of these terms. The objective of this licentiate thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of these concepts through empirical studies in a Swedish context. Further, it aims to analyse whether – and if so in what way – the implementation of local contact centres (CC) affect conditions for local planning. This is reported in three articles. In this thesis e-government is defined to as the use of tools and systems by governmental bodies made possible by ICT that affect the organization of public administration. E-governance is defined as the ICT-based networks of services and administration in New Public Management settings including both public and private actors. Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group studies, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly built on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice. Based on a theoretical discussion of New Public Management in the digital era, findings show that there is a difference between the concepts of e-government and e-governance from the perspective of e-administration and e-services and that the terms should not be used interchangeably. The study indicates that there are examples of implementation that are referred to the e-governance setting. Further the study indicates that local municipal contact centres may be referred to not only as an implementation of e-government but as a combination of e-governance and e-government. The findings indicate that there is a potential for positive impact on the conditions for local planning through the implementation of municipal contact centres.