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  • Policy-based usage control for trustworthy data sharing in smart cities

    Services répartis, Architectures, MOdélisation, Validation, Administration des Réseaux (SAMOVAR) ; Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - Télécom SudParis (TSP) - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Département Réseaux et Services Multimédia Mobiles (RS2M) ; Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - Télécom SudParis (TSP); Institut National des Télécommunications; Noël Crespi; Cao Huu, Quyet (HAL CCSD, 2017-06-08)
    In smart cities, Information and Communication Technologies, in particular Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies, are integrated into traditional services of our city, for example waste management, air pollution monitoring, and parking to improve quality while reducing costs of these services. IoT data in this context are generated by different actors, such as service providers, developers, and municipal authorities. These data should be shared among applications or services. However, in traditional scenario, there is no sharing of IoT data between them. Each actor consumes data from sensors deployed on behalf of that actor, and network infrastructure maybe shared. In order to encourage IoT data sharing, we need to establish the confidence between the actors. Exercising control over the usage of data by other actors is critical in building trust. Thus, the actors should have an ability to exercise control on how their data are going to be used. This major issue have not been treated in IoT namely Usage Control. In this thesis, we take into account obligations defined by the actors for their data (i) Abstraction of certain information, (ii) Spatial and temporal granularity, (iii) Classification of actors and purposes, and (iv) Monetization of data. For example, requirements of data usage in Intelligent parking applications are (i) Data owners have full access to all the details, (ii) Municipal authorities can access the average occupancy of parking place per street on an hourly basis, (iii) Commercial service providers can access only statistical data over a zone and a weekly basis, and (iv) Monetization of data can be based on subscription types or users roles. Thesis contributions include: (i) Policy-based Data Usage Control Model (DUPO) responds to the obligations defined by actors to their data. (ii) Trustworthy Data Sharing Platform as a Service allows transparency and traceability of data usage with open APIs based on the DUPO and Semantic technologies. (iii) Visualization Tool Prototype enables actors to exercise control on how their data will be used. (iv) Evaluation of the performance and the impact of our solution. The results show that the performance of the added trust is not affecting of the system. Mistrust might hamper public acceptance of IoT data sharing in smart cities. Our solution is key which will establish the trust between data owners and consumers by taking into account the obligations of the data owners. It is useful for data operators who would like to provide an open data platform with efficient enablers to partners, data-based services to clients, and ability to attract partners to share data on their platforms
  • FinTech for Financial Inclusion - Enabling FinTech regulation in emerging & developing countries

    Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas; Arner, Douglas W.; Buckley, Ross P. (Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur : Alliance for Financial Inclusion, 2018-09)
    Access to finance, financial inclusion and financial sector development have long been major policy objectives. A series of initiatives have aimed to increase access to finance and financial inclusion, but these have accelerated in the last decade as technological developments combined with strategic policy support show potential for progress beyond anything that has been achieved. The World Bank’s 2017 Global Findex shows that in the last three years, 515 million adults acquired a financial account, and between 2010 and 2017, 1.2 billion people opened an account with a formal financial institution or mobile financial services provider (including mobile money) for the first time. This is impressive progress by any measure, but much remains to be done: as of 2017, 1.7 billion people 16 years or older still did not have access to an account, some 31 percent of the world’s adult population. We argue that to reap the greatest benefits for financial inclusion and maximize the potential of FinTech, a framework that supports infrastructure and an enabling policy and regulatory environment, built on a strong foundation of digital identification and electronic payment systems, will support much broader digital financial transformation. The full potential of FinTech for financial inclusion may be realized with a strategic framework of underlying infrastructure and an enabling policy and regulatory environment to support digital financial transformation. Drawing from experiences in a range of developing, emerging and developed countries, our research suggests that the best approach is staged and progressive, and is focused on four main pillars. 1) The first pillar requires building digital identification and e-KYC systems to simplify access to the financial system. Once these are established for individuals and businesses, they provide a solid foundation not only for finance, but also for the development of the digital economy more broadly. 2) The second pillar requires digital payment infrastructure and open electronic payments systems, as these are the primary way to facilitate digital financial flows in an economy. 3) The third pillar combines the promotion of account opening and access with the electronic provision of government services, particularly for public transfers and payments, so as to scale up the use of digital finance and related services. By supporting access, payments and savings, together these three pillars provide a foundation for digital financial transformation and financial inclusion. 4) The fourth pillar – design of digital financial markets and systems – builds on the first three to support broader access to finance and investment, by underpinning use cases including securities trading, clearing and settlement, and other more sophisticated financial functions. There is a need for regulatory approaches that support and adapt to these four pillars. These regulatory changes are a major journey for any economy, but one that experience increasingly suggests has tremendous potential to transform financial inclusion and support digital economic development.
  • New high: a future-oriented study of American drug policy

    Nieto-Gómez, Rodrigo; Woodbury, Glen; National Security Affairs (NSA); Bress, Jessica Marie (Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, Dec-17)
    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
  • Striking a fair balance between the protection of creative content and the need to foster its dissemination : The challenges posed by Internet linking and meta search engines

    Axhamn, Johan (Springer, 2014)
    In recent years, the ability to make available, locate and access copyright protected content over the Internet has increased considerably. Some business models are directly aimed at linking or locating content already made available by other services. Such business models may create value for end users by making it easier to locate and find content on the Internet, but at the same time, they may be deemed to appropriate value from the rightholders or their service providers. In some cases, this has led to tensions and even litigations between the providers of these new business models and the rightholders or their service providers. These tensions are reflections of the underlying policy concerns inherent in the field of copyright law on the necessity to strike a fair balance between the protection of creative content and measures to foster its dissemination. This article will discuss, analyse and draw conclusions from two recent cases from the Court of Justice of the European Union on Internet linking and meta search engines, Svensson and Others and Innoweb, and relate them to the underlying policy concerns in copyright law.
  • Cybersecurity for Outer Space - A Transatlantic Study

    Doboš, Bohumil; Střítecký, Vít; Perrichon, Lisa (Univerzita Karlova, Fakulta sociálních věd, 2018-10-25)
 Cyber attacks can target any nodes of the space infrastructure, and while these attacks are called non-violent, there is a credible capability to use cyber attacks to cause direct or indirect physical damage, injury or death. However, the vulnerability of satellites and other space assets to cyber attack is often overlooked, which is a significant failing given society's substantial and ever increasing reliance on satellite technologies. Through a policy analysis, this dissertation assess the set of political provisions provided by the European Union to address the cyber security issue of the space infrastructure. Such study aims at exploring the geopolitical consequences linked to space cyber security risks, and at assessing the political preparedness of the European Union to address these challenges. The perspective of transatlantic cooperation to further support both American and European effort to tackle this security risk is also addressed. The overarching value of the study is to contribute to future European cyber security for space and transatlantic debates by providing useful perspectives and key takeaways on these two domains. Ultimately, he existing set of policies are not sufficient to address the cyber security issue in Outer Space, a unified approach by the European Union and the United...

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