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Cyber-Security Policy Decisions in Small BusinessesCyber-attacks against small businesses are on the rise yet small business owners often lack effective strategies to avoid these attacks. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore the strategies small business owners use to make cyber-security decisions. Bertalanffy's general systems theory provided the conceptual framework for this study. A purposive sample of 10 small business owners participated in the interview process and shared their decision-making methodologies and influencers. The small business owners were vetted to ensure their strategies were effective through a series of qualification questions. The intent of the research question and corresponding interview questions was to identify strategies that successful small business owners use to make cyber-security decisions. Data analysis consisted of coding keywords, phrases, and sentences from semi structured interviews as well as document analysis. The following themes emerged: government requirements, peer influence, budgetary constraints, commercial standards, and lack of employee involvement. According to the participants, budgetary constraints and peer influence were the most influential factors when making decisions regarding cyber-security strategies. Through exposing small business owners to proven strategies, the implications for social change include a reduction of their small business operating costs and assistance with compliance activities.
Australia’s Policies and Practices in Combating CybercrimeThe widespread use of the Internet has brought with it a raft of traditional and new crimes that can now be committed in cyberspace. Characteristic of immediate effects and variable means, cybercrime has become increasingly rampant around the world with great impact. Therefore, the struggle against it is in great need of coordination, cooperation and collaboration among all nations, particularly in the area of anti-terrorism. Australia has established a relatively sound and effective system in preventing and combating cybercrimes as well as to protect cyber security. Both federal and state governments have enacted a varied collection of provisions within Commonwealth, State and Territory laws that address situations related to cybercrimes. Furthermore, public agencies, governmental and non-governmental organisations also play a significant role in fighting cybercrimes and in minimizing opportunities for cybercrimes. The various practices and policies adopted to combat cybercrimes in Australia have proved to be reasonably effective. The Cybercrime Report 2011 conducted by Norton shows that nearly 69% of the adults surveyed in Australia have experienced cybercrimes while the number in China is 85%. The measures taken by Australia could serve as a useful example for governmental agencies and NGOs in China to counter cybercrimes domestically as well as internationally. Firstly this thesis will begin with providing general background information of cybercrime and cyberspace. Secondly, it will provide a brief literature review in cybercrime studies. Thirdly, an introduction of cybercrime will be provided, discussing its definitions, characteristics, categorisation and causes. Then this thesis will try to conduct an in-depth analysis of policies and practices in fighting cybercrime made by Australian governments at all levels, public agencies and non-governmental organisations, including a close examination of Australia’s education endeavours in protecting online security while preventing cybercrime. Moreover, a brief discussion on Australia’s cooperation with other countries will be included. In the conclusion part, this thesis will offer some recommendations as to how Australia and China could work together in preventing and combating cybercrime, especially trans-national cybercrime.
Building Knowledge Economies : Advanced Strategies for DevelopmentKnowledge has always been an essential
force in economic development. Chapter one, describes the
knowledge revolution, which is leading us into a
postindustrial age in which brains, not brawn, are the best
means of coping with intensified competition and new
challenges, including those related to human development and
the global environment. In explaining the foundations and
the model of knowledge economies, chapter two outlines the
four knowledge economies (KE) pillars, provides elements of
the benchmarking methodology, and relates KE achievements to
recorded growth and competitiveness. To understand the KE
process, chapter three starts with the examples of three KE
champions, Finland, Ireland, and the Republic of Korea. The
ensuing chapters examine and document in detail the four KE
policy pillars. Chapter four on the economic and
institutional regime discusses governance, regulation,
finance, and trade as they bear on the KE development
process. Chapter five on innovation addresses the question
of support for innovators, the strengthening of research and
technology infrastructure, the diffusion of basic
technologies, and the promotion of specific industries.
Chapter six deals with the national information and
communication technology (ICT) infrastructure, addressing
related applications, institutions, and regulations, as well
as access to that infrastructure and the development of the
skills needed to build, maintain, and use it. Chapter seven
looks at primary and secondary education, higher education,
and lifelong learning from a KE perspective, providing
insights on the mobility of human resources and the role of
diasporas. Chapter eight discusses policy agendas for
selected sets of countries.