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  • Informed consent in social media use - the gap between user expectations and EU personal data protection law

    Custers, Bart; van Der Hof, Simone; Schermer, Bart; Appleby-Arnold, Sandra; Brockdorff, Noellie (SCRIPT, 2013)
    In this paper, user expectations with regard to privacy and consent when using social media are compared with the EU legal framework for personal data protection. This analysis is based on a set of criteria for informed consent distilled from an analytical bibliography. User expectations regarding these criteria are derived from survey results. For each of the criteria for informed consent it is assessed whether there exists legal provisions in the existing EU personal data protection law and in the proposed legal framework in this area. A gap analysis between user expectations regarding each criterion and the availability or absence of related legal provisions shows that many but not all aspects of consent are addressed in both the current and the proposed legislation. Furthermore, the EU personal data protection legislation only provides a very general scope regarding consent and does not contain many details on what adequate consent procedures should look like. There is, at some points, a disconnect between the abstract legal provisions and the concrete practical implementations in the architecture and privacy statements of social media. Suggestions for solving these disconnects are made by suggesting changes at a practical level, by adjusting the legal framework, or both. Finally, the limits of the current models for personal data protection and consent are discussed.

    Dobrowolski, Kamil
    Głównym tematem pracy jest analiza problemu, jakie zmiany w prawach i obowiązkach administratora danych osobowych przyniosła najnowsza reforma unijnych przepisów o ochronie danych osobowych przyjęta w kwietniu 2016 roku i na podstawie wykładni krajowych oraz unijnych przepisów próba odpowiedni na pytanie, czy i jeśli tak, to w jakich przypadkach w postępowaniu przed administratorem danych osobowych powinny być stosowane przepisy Kodeksu Postępowania Administracyjnego. Pierwsza część poświęcona jest historycznemu rozwojowi oraz teoretycznym podstawom prawa do ochrony danych osobowych. Ponadto przedstawiony został w niej obecnie obowiązujący międzynarodowy oraz krajowy system prawny składający się na ochronę danych osobowych. W kolejnej części pracy podjęta została próba prześledzenia sposobu zdefiniowania pojęcia administratora danych osobowych w prawie Unii Europejskiej oraz w wybranych państwach członkowskich, tj. w Polsce, Francji oraz w Niemczech. W trzecim rozdziale znajduje się analiza przepisów ogólnego rozporządzenia o ochronie danych osobowych oraz dyrektywy 2016/680/UE mająca na celu wykazanie zasadności wyodrębnienia różnych kategorii administratorów danych osobowych zarówno ze sfery publicznej jak i ze sfery prywatnej. Ostatni, czwarty rozdział poświęcony natomiast został zagadnieniu, czy i jeśli tak, to w jakich przypadkach w postępowaniu przed administratorem danych osobowych zastosowanie powinny znaleźć przepisy o Kodeksu Postępowania Administracyjnego.

    PESCHKE, Lutz; ; Dr. Lutz PESCHKE, İpek University, Faculty of Art and Design, Department of Visual Communication Design, Ankara - Turkey (Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli UniversityAnkara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversitesi, 2015-01-01)
    Since the beginning of the digital age, the balance between forgetting and remembering changed as Viktor Mayer-Schönberger mentioned. Before the penetration of digital media into the everyday life forgetting was the norm and remembering the exception. Thus, the power of the society belonged to the interest not to be forgotten. Today in the digital age with all the search engines like google and bing there is a shift in the balance between remembering and forgetting. This article reveals the importance of the right to be forgotten and the diffi culties of the legal implementation which is discussed nowadays. In this article, fi rst of all the different kind of privacy should be described in the change of it in the digital age. Afterwards the effect of the change of whoness into a digital whoness and its consequences will be shown
  • Smart cities, movilidad inteligente y protección de los datos personales

    Alessandro Mantelero (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2016-03-01)
    En este artículo, el autor afronta las cuestiones relativas a la protección de datos en el contexto de amplios proyectos de movilidad territorial. En la primera parte, se describen brevemente los sistemas de movilidad inteligente y los problemas que de ellos se derivan, con especial atención a su incidencia sobre la dimensión individual y colectiva de la protección de datos. La segunda parte del artículo analiza<br />cómo se han afrontado estos aspectos en Italia, en el ámbito de un proyecto piloto concreto que ha involucrado a entes de transporte, gobiernos locales y a la academia.
  • Regulating Adoption of Artificial Intelligence in the Financial Sector: Identifying Legal Risks and Opportunities for Technological Innovations in Banking

    Helsingin yliopisto, Oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta; University of Helsinki, Faculty of Law; Helsingfors universitet, Juridiska fakulteten; Bhardwaj, Shivam (Helsingin yliopistoUniversity of HelsinkiHelsingfors universitet, 2020)
    The banking and financial sector has often been synonymous with established names, with some having centuries old presence. In the recent past these incumbents have been experiencing a consequential disruption by new entrants and rapidly changing consumer demands. These disruptions to the status quo have been characterised by a shift towards adoption of technology and artificial intelligence particularly in the service and products offered to the end customers. The changing business climate in the financial sector has risen many convoluted questions for the regulators. These complications cover a vast set of issues – from the concerns relating to the privacy of data of the end users to the increasing vulnerability of the financial market, to unproportionally increased compliance requirements for new entrants, all form part of the mesh of questions that have arisen in the wake of new services and operations being designed with the aid and assistance of artificial intelligence, machine learning and big data analytics.
 It is in this background that this Thesis seeks to explore the trajectory of the development of the legal landscape for regulating artificial intelligence – both in general and specifically in the financial and banking sector, particularly in the European Union. During the analysis, existing legal enactments, such as the General Data Protection Regulation, have been scrutinised and certain observations have been made regarding the areas that still remain unregulated or open to debate under the laws as it stands today. In the same vein, an attempt has been made to explore the emerging discussion on a dedicated legal regime for artificial intelligence in the European Union, and those observations have been viewed from the perspective of the financial sector, thereby creating thematic underpinnings that ought to form part of any legal instrument aiming to optimally regulate technology in the financial sector.
 To concretise the actual application of such a legal instrument, a European Union member state has been identified and the evolution of the regulatory regime in the financial sector has been discussed with the said member states’ financial supervisory authority, thus highlighting the crucial role of the law making and enactment bodies in creating and sustaining a technologically innovative financial and banking sector. The themes recognised in this Thesis could be the building blocks upon which the future legal discourse on artificial intelligence and the financial sector could be structured.