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Access and Use of E-Government Public Services Amongst Older AdultsLack of trust in technology, personal preference, and perceived inability to use online services are possible reasons for lagged adaptation to electronic government (e-government) among older adults in the United States. Although e-government policies promote, or require, that many public services be provided electronically, it is unclear whether older adults are able, or willing, to access such services. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study was to gain insight from older adults (e.g., "individuals who are 65 years or older") about their ability and willingness to access e-government services in a mid-Atlantic County. The framework for this research was Roger's diffusion of innovation theory. Data were collected via interviews with 21 older adults and then inductively coded and subjected to a thematic analysis procedure. Most participants reported using e-government services in some capacity, while the remaining 10% did not because of vision issues, the overabundance of information, personal dislike of technology, and/or the belief that e-government was not conducive for self-management. However, 28% of the participants who had used e-government preferred face-to-face interactions with people instead of online servicing while also recognizing the benefits of e-government services in terms of convenience. Moreover, participants suggested that e-government usage might improve if explanations of online terminology, examples of services, and instruction on primary online services, such as web services, are offered. The study may contribute to positive social change by providing information that federal, state, and local government officials can use to develop policies for e-government accessibility, types of services, and alternative options for the aging population.
New Public Management and IT: A Mexican Case StudyInformation technology is one of the main features of the New Public Management (NPM). This characteristic promotes government organizational changes. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between IT and the New Public Management. Through an e-government theoretical approach we researched data that supports the following hypothesis: Internal transformation processes are influenced by the use of information technology in the government (e-government). In order to provide empirical evidence we analyzed a case study of the Yucatan State by the means of a series of semi-structured expert interviews and data collection. We demonstrate how e-government influences the organizational changes in this state. The article is divided into five sections: The first one addresses the problem; second section describes the theoretical framework; the third one describes implications for the Yucatan case during practice; fourth section establishes some implications for research; and the last section provides conclusions and future research.
A comparison of open data policies in different countries: Lessons learned for an open data policy in Indonesia :Many countries around the world have joined the open data movement. Data is being published for a various number of reasons which include for the public to reuse, to create a more efficient government, and to increase transparency. Recent development in this field is that the data published is expected to be in machine readable format. In general, there is a lack in guidelines to regulate and help the process of opening data. Many countries are in different stages in developing these guidelines. Indonesia is an example of a country just beginning to join the open data movement. A field of study that is lacking is about how countries can learn from each other in developing the necessary guidelines. Being in the early stages of development, Indonesia can especially benefit from research in this area. A complex comparison of open data policies is conducted in this research to provide a basis for drawing conclusions and recommendations for the open data policy in Indonesia. For this study, five different countries that are in different stages of development in their open data initiatives are explored which results in an extensive list of findings. These countries include the United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Kenya and Indonesia. For the design of the framework, literature and case studies are conducted. The case studies are in the form of interviews with eight respondents involved in open data in each country. First, it is identified what aspects influence the uneven development of open data. Second, lessons that are relevant for Indonesia based on the many similarities and differences are identified. As the scientific contribution of the research, this framework and comparison is given because there is currently lacking research in this area. It was concluded that Indonesia can synthesize a number of lessons from the comparison that comprises a combination of elements that were presented as findings from each of the countries. The lessons that were developed include suggestions for a more robust legal framework, the creation of an ecosystem between data publishers and data users, the development of stronger IT and organizational support for open data, and the launch of initiatives that use open data at the district government levels. Interestingly, from the study, it suggests that the focus of the policies for countries in the developing stages are more related to the release of data from the publishers and less on the technical processes that are involved with opening the data. Other interesting results that were founded from the study suggest that the difference between the countries are influenced by specific forces and counter forces in the area of open government and also from the existence of individuals that highly advocate for the development of open data in that country. So, the practical contribution of this research is the lessons that each of the countries can derive from the comparison and also the specific lessons that are designed for Indonesia’s open data policy both to reap the identified benefits of opening data. Further to this research, there is a possibility to conduct research on further comparisons for a more robust and comprehensive learning process. Comparisons can be conducted on different countries about open data policies or about different aspects of open data itself. Another possibility is to create lessons for all countries involved in this current study.
The performance of government information technology officers in e-government policy implementation.The purpose of this research is to investigate the performance of the Government Information Technology Officers (GITOs) in the implementation of e-government policy during the last decade. The CIOs in the South African public sector are referred to as GITOs, the position in government departments that was established by a Cabinet memorandum in the year 2000. By 2001, the South African government developed an e-government policy framework which presents the basis for implementation of e-government initiatives by several stakeholders including the GITOs. A qualitative study was undertaken based on the case study of four national departments to determine the performance of the GITOs in the implementation of this policy. The literature review has pointed out several hindrances to the implementation of e-government initiatives and critical success factors that are to be in place to ensure successful implementation. The findings identifies the barriers for the GITOs to implement the e-government policy to include, weak policy, lack of strategic leadership, critical ICT skills, infrastructure, uncoordinated funding and low levels of e-readiness by departments. The analysis categorised the factors into six themes, i.e. ICT governance framework, leadership, organisational structural arrangement, digital divide (infrastructure and access) and integration of services and systems. The analysis of the findings and lessons from the literature review constituted the basis for policy recommendations in the last chapter.
Sexual Harassment: Limiting the Affirmative Defense in the Digital WorkplaceDigital communications sexual harassment is on the rise. Such harassment occurs through sexually offensive and unwarranted e-mails, placing harassing messages on electronic bulletin boards, and other forms of harassment that occur through the Internet. To date, courts have remained silent on the issue of sexual harassment by digital communications. Should this type of harassment be treated any differently than harassment that occurs in the physical space? The somewhat surprising answer is yes. This Article advocates applying a new judicial framework for addressing digital communications sexual harassment. This new framework accounts for the real-world technology in the digital workplace and the legal framework that courts have constructed in connection with affirmative defenses to harassment. An employer's ability to monitor and block digital communications and thus prevent sexual harassment is the fundamental difference between digital and physical sexual harassment and the underlying reason for treating them differently and for modifying the affirmative defense. The Article proposes that when an employer fails to utilize available technology to prevent sexual harassment, the affirmative defense should be either modified or altogether unavailable. Adopting this approach, courts would appropriately place an affirmative obligation on employers with blocking and monitoring technology to take reasonable preventative measures to prevent digital workplace harassment.