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Clean Energy Justice: Charting an Emerging AgendaThe rapid transition to clean energy is fraught with potential inequities. As clean energy policies ramp up in scale and ambition, they confront challenging new questions: Who should pay for the transition? Who should live next to the industrial-scale wind and solar farms these policies promote? Will the new “green” economy be a fairer one, with more widespread opportunity, than the fossil fuel economy it is replacing? Who gets to decide what kinds of resources power our decarbonized world? In this article, we assert that it is useful to understand these challenges collectively, as part of an emerging agenda of “clean energy justice.” Mapping this agenda highlights the equity challenges that will attend the transition to clean energy, and allows for more comprehensive, creative approaches to legal and policy solutions. A cleaner energy economy does not ineluctably translate into a more just economy. We identify four considerations that will be critical to ensure that clean energy does not entrench widening inequalities in wealth and power: (1) how to fund the transition; (2) who benefits from the upsides of the new clean energy economy, including green jobs and new technologies like rooftop solar panels; (3) who participates in decisions about the shape of the new clean energy economy; and (4) how and where new clean energy infrastructure is sited. Drawing from available data, we describe why there are real risks that the gains of clean energy might be unequally distributed, while the costs fall on rural communities and non-adopters of new technologies, thus exacerbating inequality while greening the grid. And through original empirical research, we highlight the challenges of full and equal participation in the esoteric, technocratic procedures of energy law. The present moment is a critical one for bringing these diverse considerations together into this overarching agenda. The U.S. energy system is in the early days of a long transition away from fossil fuels towards clean energy. It is time for energy lawmakers and energy law scholars to better anticipate the distributive and procedural justice concerns that will attend this transition, and to forge new ways to address them.
Health Law as Social JusticeHealth law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent “health justice” movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement. These tensions illustrate, rather than undermine, the power of viewing health law as social justice. They raise important questions that should prompt more fruitful and rigorous thinking within health law activism and scholarship and with regard to the relationships between law and social justice more broadly.
Changing attitudes towards fast-fashion : A qualitative study of Swedish Generation Z and their increased ecological conscienceThe fast-fashion industry’s effect on the environment becomes more of a critical subject as the industry grows and dominates the apparel industry. Fast-fashion is based on frequently pushing new trends to consumers in order to increase sold volumes. This has led to overconsumption and fashion waste where large volumes of unsold garments are burned each year. Alongside of this, the industry has begun to understand the importance of ethical conduct and sustainability to positively affect or minimally harm humans and reduce their overall impact on the environment. Generation Z are said to be a finely tuned ecologically conscious generation, whilst being frequent shoppers of fast-fashion. This has led to the purpose of this study, to see how Swedish Generation Z’s increased ecological conscience affects their fashion consumption. This will be found by examining how shifts in thinking affects their attitudes towards fast-fashion retailers and their willingness to purchase sustainable and ethical fast-fashion. This, with the intent of addressing the behavioral-attitude gap that exists amongst sustainable fast-fashion, where consumers want sustainable fashion but do not purchase it. To answer this, the empirical foundation was obtained through 20 semi-structured video-interviews via telephones to give an understanding of Generation Z’s attitudes and behaviors surrounding sustainability and ethics in fast-fashion. Conclusions drawn were that there was an awareness of sustainability concerning fast-fashion, but that it was not something that changed their behaviors so much as their attitudes. What was found was a strong attitude about ethics in fast-fashion as the majority of participants felt that they were in the dark about what happens in the supply chain, and that they could do nothing about it. If companies would clearly define why something is more ethical, it was found that the majority would be willing to change their behaviors, and purchase ethical fast-fashion. Sustainability that was something they were aware of, was lacking in fast-fashion but something they compromised for price, whilst price was not such a sensitive subject regarding ethical fashion.
Corporate Governance, Integrated Reporting and Environmental Disclosure: Evidence from the South African ContextThis research aims to investigate how the adoption of King III can affect the corporate governance model of a sample of South African listed companies on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). Particularly, we analyzed the influence of sustainability-related issues of the board of directors (BDs) on firm environmental disclosure, after the mandatory preparation of integrated reporting (IR). In addition, we also examined indepth whether some corporate social policies are able to condition the foregoing disclosure. The empirical study covers the period from 2010 (the first-time adoption of IR in South Africa) to 2015 (the earliest year of the release process regarding King Code of Governance Principles for South Africa 2009 (i.e., King III)). Data were collected by the Bloomberg database. With reference to the BDs features, great attention was paid to both business ethics policy and CEO duality. Instead, with regard to corporate social issues, we looked into the adoption of the policies pertaining to health and safety and the respect for human rights. Following the mandatory preparation of IR, our findings show a positive relationship between business ethics policy and firm environmental disclosure. Contrarily, CEO duality does not exert any effect over the earlier type of corporate reporting. Furthermore, empirical evidence substantiates the association between health safety and human rights policies that are very crucial in an emerging economy, such as South Africa, and firm environmental disclosure. The rationale of such results arguably resides in compliance with King III. Therefore, this study can provide interesting insights, given that its mandatory adoption might reveal an important turning point in the development of corporate governance codes, as well as being a “driver” for potential enhancements of firm environmental disclosure, inter alia, in line with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 12.6
[News Script: Baptist]Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, relating a news story about the president of the National Baptist Convention announcing his support for the re-election of President Nixon during the convention's annual meeting.