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La regulación del comercio electrónico transfronterizo en los acuerdos comerciales: algunas implicaciones de política para América Latina y el CaribeLa creciente relevancia del comercio electrónico ha generado un debate sobre los desafíos regulatorios que este plantea, y sobre los eventuales cambios requeridos en la gobernanza del comercio mundial. En ausencia de avances significativos a nivel multilateral, en la última década y media han proliferado los acuerdos comerciales preferenciales (ACP) que contienen disposiciones sobre comercio electrónico. Estas son muy diversas en su amplitud y profundidad, lo que refleja las distintas visiones de los principales actores de la economía digital sobre cómo se debe regular dicho comercio.
Este documento analiza cómo los países de la región han buscado regular el comercio electrónico en sus ACP, inicialmente con socios extrarregionales y más recientemente en algunos acuerdos intrarregionales.
Why is there so little critical physical education scholarship in the United States? The case of FitnessgramIn posing the question in our title, we have set ourselves the task of trying to understand why so little scholarly scrutiny and questioning of Fitnessgram—a product designed to assist in the school-based physical fitness testing of young people—exists in the country of its origin and then consider the implications of this silence. We begin our interrogation by offering a broad definition of ‘critical scholarship’. We then briefly describe the contemporary landscape of physical education research and its preoccupation with an instrumental and applied approach to scholarship that seems limited to questions about ‘what works’ in schools. Following this overview we discuss the scholarship of Fitnessgram. Our analysis focuses on the increasing influence of various webs of connection between academics, professional organizations, corporations, funding agencies and publishing outlets. To substantiate the claims we make, we offer some examples from the recent history of abstracts accepted for presentation at prominent national conferences and discuss the contents of leading United States health and physical education journals. The overwhelming apparent message emanating from these scholarly outlets is that school and university personnel should simply fall into line with the mandates of government and public health advocates when it comes to the implementation of Fitnessgram. Our review reveals that the Fitnessgram literature suffers from a lack of counter-balancing scepticism particularly when it comes to the interpretation of research findings. As we will argue, virtually no critical scholarship of any kind exists on the use of Fitnessgram, a remarkable situation given recent public policy developments that call for its expanded adoption in United States schools.
Rationality and Digital TechnologyThe computing profession must monitor the development of digital technology and, if necessary, influence it. The author reviews the role of rationality and irrationality in society, examines the actual and potential effects of digital technology on social rationality and irrationality, and the need for professional control of that technology.
What U.S. Cyber Command Must DoIn June 2009, the Secretary of Defense announced the creation of U.S. Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM), a new subunified command to be led by the director of the National Security Agency (NSA). While the press colored the announcement with Big Brother undertones and hints of civil liberties surrendered, the real story lies in the intriguing legal landscape of USCYBERCOM and what it could mean for the security, efficiency, and economy of the military's networks. The Department of Defense (DOD), the largest single consumer of Federal information technology dollars, has struggled for decades to bring a singular voice and management process to its communications infrastructure. Although this is not the stated intent of the new command, USCYBERCOM must ultimately reconcile its role in information technology "ownership" and draw clear operational boundaries if it is to administer cyber security through unified standards and procedures. As USCYBERCOM now has its first commander and begins shaping its core functions, fundamental changes in the legal landscape must occur in parallel with the new organizational structure if the command hopes to effect a "comprehensive approach to Cyberspace Operations." In short, it must go beyond cosmetic organizational change and set to work on a campaign that genuinely reduces interdepartmental friction, repairs ailing processes, and truly empowers it to meet its mission, both specified and implied.