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Good governance e o Conselho Nacional de JustiçaOs sistemas judiciais, no Brasil e em todo o mundo, estão passando por grandes modificações nas últimas décadas. No Brasil, de modo especial após a constituição federal de 1988, verifica-se um importante aumento da judicialização das relações sociais, da política e, consequentemente, da importância da administração da justiça. Além disso, a função judicial tem hoje uma relevante relação com as funções administrativas dos tribunais. Assim, uma satisfatória prestação jurisdicional requer também boas práticas administrativas. Nesse sentido, aumenta progressivamente o número de estudos sobre conceitos e técnicas de good governance nos assuntos públicos. Neste artigo, sustenta-se que a nova compreensão do modelo de justiça necessita da implementação de técnicas e práticas de good governance nos tribunais, conduzidas pelo conselho nacional de justiça, relacionadas principalmente às ideias de transparência, participação, eficácia, eficiência e coerência.
The influence of corruption and governance in the delivery of frontline health care services in the public sector: a scoping review of current and future prospects in low and middle-income countries of south and south-east AsiaAbstract Background The dynamic intersection of a pluralistic health system, large informal sector, and poor regulatory environment have provided conditions favourable for ‘corruption’ in the LMICs of south and south-east Asia region. ‘Corruption’ works to undermine the UHC goals of achieving equity, quality, and responsiveness including financial protection, especially while delivering frontline health care services. This scoping review examines current situation regarding health sector corruption at frontlines of service delivery in this region, related policy perspectives, and alternative strategies currently being tested to address this pervasive phenomenon. Methods A scoping review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) was conducted, using three search engines i.e., PubMed, SCOPUS and Google Scholar. A total of 15 articles and documents on corruption and 18 on governance were selected for analysis. A PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist was filled-in to complete this report. Data were extracted using a pre-designed template and analysed by ‘mixed studies review’ method. Results Common types of corruption like informal payments, bribery and absenteeism identified in the review have largely financial factors as the underlying cause. Poor salary and benefits, poor incentives and motivation, and poor governance have a damaging impact on health outcomes and the quality of health care services. These result in high out-of-pocket expenditure, erosion of trust in the system, and reduced service utilization. Implementing regulations remain constrained not only due to lack of institutional capacity but also political commitment. Lack of good governance encourage frontline health care providers to bend the rules of law and make centrally designed anti-corruption measures largely in-effective. Alternatively, a few bottom-up community-engaged interventions have been tested showing promising results. The challenge is to scale up the successful ones for measurable impact. Conclusions Corruption and lack of good governance in these countries undermine the delivery of quality essential health care services in an equitable manner, make it costly for the poor and disadvantaged, and results in poor health outcomes. Traditional measures to combat corruption have largely been ineffective, necessitating the need for innovative thinking if UHC is to be achieved by 2030.
The organizational ethical self-identity precautionary model through self-regulating of Malaysian public sector: conceptual analysisThe objectives of this study are to explore the five elements of public sector ethical self-identity precautionary and to propose the Organizational Ethical Self-Identity Precautionary Model in enhancing ethical accountability of the Malaysian Public Sector. This study employed qualitative research by analyzing data from interviews with key informers of the public sector using conceptual content analysis. The study revealed five elements of Organizational Ethical Self-Identity Precautionary Model which are ethical leadership (8 attributes), ethical employees (9 attributes), spirituality encouragement (6 attributes), spirituality acceptance (6 attributes) and code of ethical conduct (5 attributes). These identified elements and their attributes should become the ethical identity and ethical direction of the Malaysian Public Sector. This would enhance the ethical accountability of Malaysia Public Sector which further improved the trust among Malaysian and the international community towards the governance of the public sector.
Assessing the governance of the health policy-making process using a new governance tool: the case of LebanonAbstract Background In the international agenda, it has become common to assert that the assessment of health system governance using a practical tool is crucial. This approach can help us better understand how health systems are being steered as well as to identify gaps in the decision-making process and their causes. The authors developed a new assessment tool, the Health Policymaking Governance Guidance Tool (HP-GGT), that was designed to be conceptually sound and practical. This tool enables policy-makers and stakeholders to systematically review and assess health system governance at policy-making level. This article presents first use of the HP-GGT in Lebanon, together with generated results, recommendations, and discusses how these results improve governance practices when initiating new health policy formulation processes. Methods The HP-GGT, which is a multidimensional structured tool, was used retrospectively to assess and review the process used to develop a new mental health strategy; this process was compared against consensus-based good governance principles, focusing on participation, transparency, accountability, information and responsiveness. The assessment was conducted through face-to-face interviews with 11 key informants who were involved in the development of the strategy. Results The HP-GGT enabled policy-makers to reflect on their governance practices when developing a mental health strategy and was able to identify key areas of strengths and weaknesses using good governance practice checklists given by the questions. The insights generated from the assessment equipped the national policy-makers with a better understanding of the practice and meaning of policy-making governance. Identifying weaknesses to be addressed in future attempts to develop other national health policies helped in this regard. Using the tool also increased awareness of alternative good practices among policy-makers and stakeholders. Conclusions Assessing a health policy formulation process from a governance perspective is essential for improved policy-making. The HP-GGT was able to provide a general overview and an in-depth assessment of a policy formulation process related to governance issues according to international good practices that should be applied while formulating health policies in any field. The HP-GGT was found to be a practical tool that was useful for policy-makers when used in Lebanon and awaits applications in other low- and middle-income countries to further show its validity and utility.
Ethics and Stakeholder Engagement for Industry/Construction 4.0: A Systematic ReviewIndustry 4.0 is an offshoot of the first, second and third industrial revolutions. Which is an indication of it is globalization. In the same vein, construction 4.0 which takes its context after the industry 4.0 is expected to lead to the fourth construction revolution? Ethics and stakeholder engagement have been individually studies and written about. Both industry and construction 4.0 require an ethical lens and an engagement pattern towards a rapid realization of their objectives. This paper quantitatively x-rays researchers’ interests in the fields, and the subject areas so far covered in their studies. However, little or no studies have applied the ethical lens and engagement pattern into the revolutionary concepts. We applied systematic review method (the first in the field), to discover the linear and the polynomial nature of researches in the fields. This discoveries is hoped to open up further researches towards the rapid development of the fourth I