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  • Role of big data in assessing abuse of a dominant position by data-driven online platforms under EU competition law

    Zawidzka-Łojek, Anna; Marcisz, Paweł (promotor pomocniczy); Małobęcka-Szwast, Iga (2019-12-20)
    The main research objective of the dissertation is to analyse whether and if so, how the EU legal framework for the assessment of abuse of a dominant position under Article 102 TFEU15 should be adjusted to address the competition online platforms and, if not, how it should be adjusted; (2) whether the EU framework currently used for defining a relevant market is suitable to deal with data-driven online platforms’ businesses and, if not, how it should be adjusted; (3) whether big data contributes to the emergence of a new type of abuse that is data-driven; (4) whether instruments currently used in the EU for the assessment of abuses of a dominant position under Article 102 TFEU are sufficiently flexible to address potential data-driven abuses by online platforms. Following hypotheses are to be tested in the dissertation: (1) big data constitutes a competitive advantage for data-driven online platforms and is an important factor influencing their market power; (2) big data contributes to the emergence of a new type of abuse of a dominant position that is data-driven; (3) the current EU framework for the assessment of abuse of dominant position under Article 102 TFEU needs to be adjusted in order to capture specificity of data-driven online platforms, the role of big data in their businesses and their potentially abusive data-driven practices. concerns arising from the widespread use of big data by data-driven online platforms. In order to achieve the established objective, the following research questions are considered: (1) whether the EU framework currently used for the assessment of market power allows for taking due account of big data’s influence on the market power of data-driven
  • Change of Purpose - The effects of the Purpose Limitation Principle in the General Data Protection Regulation on Big Data Profiling

    Westermann, Hannes (Lunds universitet/Juridiska institutionenLunds universitet/Juridiska fakulteten, 2018)
    Over the past few years, many companies have started to adopt Big Data technologies. Big Data is a method and technology that allows the collection and analysis of huge amounts of all kinds of data, mainly in digital form. Big Data can be used, for example, to create profiles of online shopping users to target ads. I call this Big Data Profiling. Facebook and Google, for example, are able to estimate attributes, such as gender, age and interests, from data provided by their users. This can be worrisome for many users who feel that their privacy is infringed when the Big Data Profiling companies, for example, are able to send advertisements to the users that are scarily relevant to them. Big Data Profiling relies on a vast amount of collected data. Often, at the time of collection, it is not clear how exactly this data will be used and analyzed. The new possibilities with Big Data Profiling have led to companies collecting as much data as possible, and then later figuring out how to extract value from this data. This model can be described as “collect-before select”, since the data is first collected, and then “mined” for correlations that can be used to profile users. In this thesis I analyze whether this form of collection and usage of Personal Data is legal under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which enters into force in the European Union on 25 May 2018. While many of the provisions of the GDPR already existed in the Data Protection Directive (DPD) since 1995, they have been reinforced and extended in the GDPR. One of the main principles of the GDPR is that of Purpose Limitation. While the principle already exists under the DPD in a very similar fashion, it is likely that it will be enforced more under the GDPR, since the GDPR is directly applicable in member states instead of having to be implemented. The enforcement mechanisms, such as sanctions, have also been significantly strengthened. The Purpose Limitation Principle requires the data controller (such as companies processing Personal Data, like Facebook and Google) to have a specified purpose for and during the collection of Personal Data. Further, the Personal Data cannot be processed beyond this purpose after it has been collected. This seems to run contrary to Big Data Profiling, which regularly looks for purposes only after the Personal Data has been collected. However, I have identified three potential ways the “collect before select” model could still be possible under the GDPR. The first possibility is the anonymization of Personal Data. If data can be efficiently anonymized, it will fall outside of the scope of the GDPR because it will not contain Personal Data after the anonymization. The controller is then free to analyze the data for any purpose, including creating models that could be used to profile other users. However, I found that Big Data methods can often reidentify Personal Data that has been previously anonymized. In such cases even purportedly anonymized data may still fall under the scope of the GDPR. If on the other hand enough Personal Data is removed to make reidentification impossible, the value of the data for large parts of the business world is likely destroyed. The second possibility is collecting Personal Data for a specified purpose that is defined so widely that it covers all potential future use cases. If a controller can collect Personal Data for a vague purpose, such as “marketing”, the controller will have a lot of flexibility in using the data while still being covered by the initial purpose. I found that the GDPR requires data controllers (such as companies) to have a purpose for the data collection that is specific enough so that the data subject is able to determine exactly which kinds of processing the controller will undertake. Having a non-existent or too vague purpose is not sufficient under the GDPR. Companies that collect data with no, or an only vaguely defined, purpose and then try to find a specific purpose for the collected data later will therefore have to stop this practice. The third possibility can be used if the controller wants to re-use Personal Data for further purposes, after the controller has collected the Personal Data initially in compliance with the GDPR for a specified purpose. In this case, the GDPR offers certain possibilities of further processing this data outside of the initial purpose. The GDPR allows this for example if the data subject has given consent to the new purpose. However, I found that Big Data Profiling companies often come up with new purposes later by “letting the data speak”, which means by analyzing the data itself to find new purposes. Before performing an analysis, often the company might not even know how the processing will be done later. In that case, it is impossible to request the data subject’s specific consent, which is required under the GDPR. Even without the data subject’s consent, there are however other possibilities of further processing data under the GDPR, such as determining whether the new processing is compatible with the initial purpose. My thesis examines some of those possibilities for a change of purpose under Big Data Profiling. My conclusion is that the GDPR likely means a drastic impact and limitation on Big Data Profiling as we know it. Personal Data cannot be collected without a purpose or with a vague purpose. Even Personal Data that was collected for a specific purpose cannot be re-used for another purpose except for in very few circumstances. Time will tell how the courts interpret the GDPR and decide different situations, how the companies will adapt to them and if the legislator will react to this reality.
  • Política 2.0 y la comunicación en tiempos modernos

    Lanza, Lucas; Fide, Natalia (2011)
    This article analyzes how new media - like Internet and social networks have changed the ecosystem of political information, with new channels and information fowing with greater rapidity, with a consumer who is also generating of the news: the new prosumer. The convergence between traditional and new media, demand new mental capabilities on behalf of the users. And new skills on the part of the political candidates, who need to intervene with segmented messages and capacity to administer the conversation. Also, emblematic cases are analyzed, like Barack Obama's campaign as an icon of political communication 2.0, and different scenarios are described and contextualised, according to data of the Permanent Observatory of Politics 2.0 of the Institute of Politics & Democracy of the Society of the Information for the Americas (eamericas.org).
  • Política 2.0 y la comunicación en tiempos modernos

    Lanza, Lucas; Fide, Natalia (DIALNET OAI Articles, 2011)
    This article analyzes how new media - like Internet and social networks have changed the ecosystem of political information, with new channels and information fowing with greater rapidity, with a consumer who is also generating of the news: the new prosumer. The convergence between traditional and new media, demand new mental capabilities on behalf of the users. And new skills on the part of the political candidates, who need to intervene with segmented messages and capacity to administer the conversation. Also, emblematic cases are analyzed, like Barack Obama's campaign as an icon of political communication 2.0, and different scenarios are described and contextualised, according to data of the Permanent Observatory of Politics 2.0 of the Institute of Politics & Democracy of the Society of the Information for the Americas (eamericas.org).
  • Wie bin ich an Prinzessin Margaret gekommen? (Und wie kam sie in das World Wide Web?)

    Jones, Kip; Bournemouth University (Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social ResearchForum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 2007-09-30)
    Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der zunehmenden Verwendung künstlerischer Ansätze für die Verbreitung sozialwissenschaftlicher Befunde. Dabei werden Orte des Wissenstransfers, die beispielsweise mit dem World Wide Web erwachsen, als mögliche Märkte einer performativen Sozialwissenschaft betrachtet. Zusätzliche behandele ich ethische Fragen und Fragen der Bewertung von Forschungsergebnissen, die mit einer performativen Sozialwissenschaft und der Nutzung neuer Technologien einhergehen. Zeitgenössische ästhetische Ansätze werden in ihrer Potenz, Fragen der Evaluation zu beantworten, erörtert. Die Nutzung des Internets wird für die kollektive Elaboration von Sinn innerhalb einer relationalen Ästhetik vorgeschlagen. Eine mögliche Lösung des ethischen Problems bei der Darstellung der Narrationen Dritter ist die Verwendung autoethnografischer Erzählungen durch die Schreibenden. Allerdings stelle ich die Tendenz vieler Autoethnografien, "traurige" Geschichten zu erzählen, in Frage und schlage stattdessen amüsante Erzählweisen vor, wie hier am Beispiel von "The One about Princess Margaret" (http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/07-3-3-e_app.pdf) veranschaulicht. Ich komme zu dem Schluss, dass der freie und offene Charakter des Internets der üblichen Langeweile akademischer Veröffentlichungen entgegenwirken kann und dass er auch erlaubt, innovative Antworten auf Fragen nach der Ethik und Bewertbarkeit performativer Sozialwissenschaft zu geben. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070338

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