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  • El trabajo de campo como abandono: una reflexión sobre la metodología de la observación participante

    Piñeiro, Eleder; Diz, Carlos (Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia - ICANH, 2018)
    [Resumen] En diálogo con teorías antropológicas, desde
 nuestra experiencia etnográfica presentamos el
 trabajo de campo como un abandono, en sentido
 positivo. Dicho abandono tiene en cuenta
 diferentes aspectos que interactúan con la figura
 del antropólogo, como herramienta, sujeto y
 objeto de conocimiento, mediador e intérprete
 de lo cultural. Entendemos la observación
 participante como una experiencia cognitivocorporal,
 donde la flexibilidad, las relaciones
 de reciprocidad con los sujetos de estudio y las
 alternativas al sociocentrismo y al etnocentrismo
 son ejes de nuestro análisis. Proponemos la
 práctica del trabajo de campo como un ritual
 de iniciación y como un escenario ideal para el
 análisis de las relaciones entre ciencia, poder
 y política. Entendemos el campo como lugar
 pero también como habitus.
  • The ethics of taking care : In search of a new paradigm for Hospital Ethics through moral epistemology

    Vectorologie et thérapeutiques anti-cancéreuses [Villejuif] (UMR 8203) ; Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 (UP11)-Institut Gustave Roussy (IGR)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Université Paris Sud - Paris XI; Emmanuel Hirsch; Porretta, Florence (HAL CCSD, 2012-06-19)
    The ethics of care has been a major topic of discussion in recent years. Many paradoxical injunctions are heard of in hospitals, for instance the strange insistence on “welfare”, as if a caregiver had to be told notto mistreat a patient. One has however to admit that the reality of caring isn’t exactly the ideal onepictured by the healthcare authorities. The ethical knowledge of caregivers remains pretty poor in spite ofthe numerous theoretical courses and the practice guidelines that they are provided with. Recent lawsdestined to help the physicians in their practice (the most important ones being the Kouchner law on therights of sick people and the quality of the healthcare system and the Leonetti law on the patients’ rightsand end of life) are for instance still quite misunderstood.In order for health care ethics not to remain a pious incantation, one has first of all to clarify the reasonswhy the ethical thinking is still in limbo and find out the origin of resistances to carry out in action themoral values preached by the official ethicians (beneficence, respect for autonomy, respect for dignityand so on). The structural impediments that cause patent disinterest for the most vulnerable persons arehere analyzed from an epistemological and phenomenological point of view based on a threefoldexperience (medical, pedagogical and managerial).A paradigm shift is necessary to get over these impediments. While recognizing fully the importance ofscience and rationality for medicine, one has to account for the complex reality, both objective andsubjective, of health care, including the growing pressure of economic considerations. Obviously, caringisn’t always an innate behavior when it comes to caregivers. Precise actions have thus to be taken in achanging socio-economic context to ensure that the ethics of care is incorporated by every one of them.Therefore, the new paradigm will have to be less theoretical and more practical, it will reevaluatesimplicity and commonness and will hold the act of caring as such to be ethical.
  • Humanitarian aid : A qualitative study of the ethical reasoning behind the allocation from the perspective of five Swedish-based organizations

    Danielsson, Jennelié; Polasek, Anna-Maria (Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping University, HLK, Globala studierHögskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping University, HLK, Globala studier, 2020)
    The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols aim to protect those people who are not “participating in the hostilities” of war, such as “civilians, health workers and aid workers” and are the pillar of humanitarian law (International Committee of the Red Cross, 2010). The humanitarian principles including humanity, neutrality, independence and impartiality, are based on the international humanitarian law and committed to by all member states of the European Union (European Commission, 2019). Although these principles exist to guide the humanitarian organizations in their assistance and allocation of humanitarian aid, they are sometimes overlooked in terms of, for instance, self-interest, strategic motives and media attention. This results in ethical dilemmas for humanitarian organizations. The aim of this thesis is to examine how Swedish aid donors, both a governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), reason ethically in relation to the allocation of humanitarian aid towards conflict-affected areas. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with four Non-Governmental Organizations and one governmental organization in order to examine and compare their ethical reasoning. The theories of consequentialism, utilitarianism, deontological ethics, socialization and rational choice have been applied to investigate the research questions further. The results broadly indicate that all participating organizations reason similar in terms of ethics in contrast to the findings in the previous research. For instance, they all follow the humanitarian principles and use additional ethical frameworks in the allocation of humanitarian aid. Many similarities were found among the NGOs and the governmental organization as well as a few differences.
  • Improving the informed consent process among HIV‐infected undisclosed minors participating in a biomedical research: insights from the multicentre nutritional SNACS study in Senegal

    Recherches Translationnelles sur le VIH et les maladies infectieuses (TransVIHMI) ; Université Montpellier 1 (UM1)-Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Université Cheikh Anta Diop [Dakar, Sénégal] (UCAD)-Universtié Yaoundé 1 [Cameroun]-Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)-Université de Montpellier (UM); Centre Hospitalier National d'Enfants Albert Royer; Comité National de Lutte contre le Sida du Sénégal (CNLS) ; Ministère de la santé-CNLS; HEJOAKA, Fabienne; Varloteaux, Marie; Desclaux‐Sall, Caroline; Ndiaye, Sidy Mokhtar; Diop, Karim; Diack, Aminata; Niasse, Fatou; et al. (HAL CCSDJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2019)
    International audience
  • Transforming Lives and Systems

    Frawley, Jack; Nguyen, Tran; Sarian, Emma (Springer Nature, 2020)
    This open access book explores the transformative experiences of participants in the University of Sydney’s National Centre for Cultural Competence (NCCC) programs. The establishment of the NCCC was viewed as a critical point of departure for developing an institution-wide agenda of cultural competence. The NCCC’s work since its inception reflects efforts to lay important foundations for cultural change at the University. With the ultimate aim of establishing cultural competence as an agent for transformational change and social justice education, the NCCC has steadily expanded its research and teaching work both within and beyond the University of Sydney. Further, it has developed foundational resources to support and encourage University staff to integrate cultural competence philosophy and pedagogy in their curricula, teaching and research. This includes the ability to engage meaningfully with the cultures, histories and contemporary issues in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The NCCC programs have been designed to encourage participants to learn about who they are and how they can positively impact the transformational change the University has begun. The book presents participants’ reflections on their experiences at the organisational and personal level. Readers will gain insights into a range of topics including cultural competence, communities of practice, policy implementation, and transformative leadership at the interface between higher education and professional lives.

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