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  • Medieval penitentials and nature of women’s sins

    Katrenicova, Anabela (Ovidius University of Constanta (Romania), 2020-11-30)
    The medieval penitentials propose a very interesting source to understand the sight of the whole society on the women. In our study, the presented books of penance reveal the women in their different social roles. We see them as the poor victims of the sinful activity of men. Nevertheless, we can recognize them as evil sinners. In this study, we try to present the medieval view of women’s social position, the nature of their sins, and their manner of trespassing God’s commandments as well. The numerous penitentials denote that the women commit only some kinds of sins, from which we can mention murder, witchcraft, and lust. Thus the women in Middle-Ages arouse fear and that is why they must be subordinated by men in society. Fortunately, the 20th century brings to women the liberty and equality with men, the new situation to which the Catholic Church reacts with the exaltation of the women.
  • Zainab Al-Ghazali: A History of Mujahidah Awakening in Egypt

    Ghazali, Ummi Zainab Mohd; Sabjan, Muhammad Azizan (European Publisher, 2019-10-30)
    Islamic civilization has given birth to the myriad of Muslim intellectuals regardless of gender. Zainab al-Ghazali was the founder of Muslim Women Association (MWA) of ‘Jama’at al-Sayyidat al-Muslima’ and the driving force behind Muslimah Akhwat Association. The basis of her thinking was on women’s right and place in Islam. The rallying call of her struggle was to spread Islamic knowledge towards Muslim women, instilling them with true Islamic principle of their rights and responsibilities, imparting a wave of change on them in line with the teaching of al-Quran and sunnah. Her approach towards spreading her da’wah was through written articles and lectures especially concerning women’s right and status in Islam. Her enlightenment had greatly impacted a massive number of women in Egypt to rise up to defend and to fight for their rights. Her personality, bravery, and intellectual have succeeded in uplifting the hierarchy of women in the world of da’wah and Islamic politics. She successfully warded off conventional prejudice towards women’s leadership in Islamic society. Her battle to define women’s role in Islamic society was truly exemplary and could be used as a point of reference towards women’s plight in society today.
  • Derechos humanos de las mujeres en el mundo árabo-islámico: universalismo versus relativismo (Women's human rights in the Arab-Islamic world: Universalism versus relativism)

    Ewa K. Strzelecka (Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law, 2020-12-01)
    Este artículo hace una revisión crítica sobre la tensión y la posible reconciliación entre el relativismo y la universalidad de los derechos humanos de las mujeres en el mundo árabo-islámico. A través del análisis comparativo de los instrumentos internacionales, tales como la Convención sobre la Eliminación de Todas las Formas de Discriminación contra la Mujer (CEDAW), y los mecanismos regionales, tales como la Declaración de Derechos Humanos en el Islam y la Carta Árabe de Derechos Humanos, se destacan las brechas y los avances en la práctica de los derechos fundamentales de las mujeres en los veintidós Estados de la Liga Árabe. Como un ejemplo específico se debaten los cambios legislativos en materia de la transmisión de la nacionalidad por parte de las mujeres a sus hijos e hijas y a sus maridos extranjeros, conforme con la adaptación de la legislación nacional de los países árabo-islámicos a las exigencias de los tratados internacionales que garantizan la igualdad de género en el mundo.<br /><br /> This article critically examines the tension and possible reconciliation of competing views of culture relativism and the universality of women's human rights in the Arab-Islamic world. A comparative analysis of international human rights instruments, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), and regional human rights protection mechanisms, such as the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam and the Arab Charter on Human Rights, allow us to get insight into the complexity of the cultural and legal definition and practice of women’s rights within twenty-two States of the Arab Ligue. Particular attention is paid to the national law amendments with regard to transmission of nationality from women to their children and foreign spouses. This is in accordance with the adaptation of the national legislation of the Arab-Islamic countries to the demands of international treaties which guarantee gender equality across the world.<br /><strong><br /> Available from:</strong> <a href="https://doi.org/10.35295/osls.iisl/0000-0000-0000-1086" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.35295/osls.iisl/0000-0000-0000-1086</a>
  • The Scapegoating of Islamic Immigrant Women in the Media

    Mazurski, Lara (Dyckinson, 2016-06-10)
    In 2010 the Sweden Democrats (SD) unveiled their campaign advertisement for the
 parliamentary election, they engaged a series of images positioning immigrants as
 scapegoats by creating a link between immigration and the domestic budget crisis.
 While the advert associated immigration and lslam with the economic failings of
 Swedish society, the SD also energized new forms of representation, a new
 embodiment of Swedishness and, additionally, of conceptualizations of 'the Other'.
 On the surface, the controversial campaign ad identified economic concerns and
 moral corruption with immigration, women, and lslam. Perhaps, as a result of this
 immediate reading, the state's leading broadcaster, TV4, banned the advertisement
 for inciting hate speech before it even aired on Swedish television. The act of
 censorship thrust the ad centre stage, with a flurry of media coverage and the
 Sweden Democrats (SD) proclaiming unlawful persecution. Paradoxically, or,
 perhaps, expectedly, censorship of the advertisement, and the ensuing public debate
 about censorship, dramatically increased awareness of the party and their message,
 in various and complex ways.
  • Mujeres afganas y prensa en España : infantilización, victimización y ocultación de los procesos de resiliencia

    Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Periodismo I; Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Periodismo II; Zurbano-Berenguer, Belén; Martínez Fábregas, Jezabel (2016-02-12)
    En la actualidad, el potencial de los medios de comunicación social en cuanto a conformadores
 de la opinión pública y de los imaginarios colectivos es innegable. Su poder se ve además
 multiplicado cuando aborda realidades que se escinden de lo cotidiano para convertirse en no
 contrastables, en no cognoscibles sino a través de los procesos comunicativos de mediación. De
 este modo, la información se convierte en realidad eliminándose cualquier atisbo de referente
 más allá del proceso comunicativo. En este contexto, informar sobre mujeres afganas se vuelve
 una empresa ciertamente compleja: diferencia, rechazo, miedo, intereses diversos,
 desconocimiento y prejuicio se añaden a una labor comunicativa ya de por sí ardua. En este
 trabajo se pretende ahondar en cómo los medios de comunicación construyen una imagen de la
 mujer afgana como un sujeto pasivo y sumiso, alejado de cualquier proceso de empoderamiento
 construyendo a una mujer no sólo irreal, sino abismalmente diferente de “las otras” mujeres con
 las que comparten espacio informativo, es decir, las occidentales. Contribuyendo con ello a un
 proceso doble de discriminación: el que propugna el orden patriarcal y misógino y el del
 feminismo occidental.

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