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Ruang-ruang Keadilan bagi Sang MarginThis essay examines just space(s) from the perspective of Christian hospitality towards the marginalized. The focus for Letty Russell in her theology addresses those considered the ‘unfortunate’ or those victimized by the variegated visage of injustice (the ‘unfair’) as that face is set against ‘the outsiders’; Miroslav Volf focuses on the ‘other,’ as does Amos Yong concerning “the stranger.” Nevertheless, they use these three terms interchangeably. To build just space(s) for the marginalized, I intend to approach the justice discourse via two arguments: first, by claiming that every theory of justice derived philosophically tends to get trapped in matters of techno-calculation; second, by proposing the relevance of a theological approach for “patching” such philosophical shortcomings. Following the parable of the workers in the vineyard in Matthew 20:10-16, we see that a theological approach yields a conceptualization of generosity—as the commentaries of Michael Green show—thereby demonstrating the relevance of such theological praxis. As a study in Christian hospitality, this essay proposes several ethical tenets for the building of just space(s) as spaces for justice that take as their point of departure the very same marginalized toward whom these spaces are oriented.
Menampakkan Corak Biru Kekristenan Indonesia: Sebuah Perspektif EkoteologiThis paper seeks to interpret that which is blue of Indonesia—the largest archipelagic nation in the world—by way of proffering for Indonesian Christianity a range of blue hues (corak biru) following an ecotheological perspective. I start by discussing ecotheology and its contribution within Christianity to illustrate how this sub-discipline becomes a “brush” that for Christianity can render such blue hues. This is followed by a discussion on why and how a responsive ecotheology to the environmental/marine ecosystem crisis could render as “blue paint” for that subdisciplinary brush—a blue ecotheology (ekoteologi biru). To accomplish this, both Christianity’s abject appraisal of the sea, as well as Christianity’s own blue-hued anthropocentrism (corak biru antroposentrisme), are parsed and addressed in turn by the paradigm of a community of creation as “sketch.” These discussions summarily affirm the conviction that the sea must be considered and treated not as an object of human exploitation but as a proper subject working to support the life that is common among all of God’s animate creation. Humankind and the sea itself, alike, participate in that life. The spectrum of blueness I propose to be displayed across the “canvas” of Indonesian Christianity is this: to be sea-friendly in both outlook and attitude, in ways that safeguard the sea’s ongoing involvement in life. To conclude, this paper invites Indonesian Christianity to put the full array of its blue hues on display within both theological discourse and its activities as the church.
Menyoal Agapisme Klasik di Indonesia : Sebuah Dialektika Mengenai Anders Nygren dan Apropriasi Terhadap Eros dalam EtikaIn Indonesia, the discussion concerning the meta-ethical basis for the doing of good to others is still dominated by agapism, which is the line of thought claiming that agape is the highest form of love, done by God, and that which is proper for a Christian to bear out. Theological refutations have begun to emerge there, from theologians such as Ferry Mamahit and Joas Adiprasetya. Mamahit criticizes the dichotomous polarization of agape apart from eros, while Adiprasetya restores the goodness of philia vis-à-vis agape. This essay criticizes agapism, especially the classical agapism of Anders Nygren, from an overtly philosophical angle. With assistance from the philosophical anthropological apparatus of Christian thinker James K. A. Smith, I explicate how desire (erotic-love) is an inherent quality of being human. The problem does not lie in whether humankind should want to jettison eros—which is the normative prescription of Nygren—because eros is the ultimate impulse that in actuality underlies good deeds toward others. The issue lies precisely in what is to be the final purpose (causa finalis) of any good deed. To complement Smith’s thought, this essay employs Nicholas Wolterstorff’s proposal that shalom serve as the causa finalis of a person’s doing good. The intent of all this effort is to underscore that the Smith/Wolterstorff model is more in line with reality than is agapism.
Eksklusivisme dan Radikalisme dalam Kitab Ezra: Upaya Menelaah Penyebab Eksklusivisme dan Radikalisme Bangsa Israel dalam Kitab Ezra serta Menemukan Refleksi bagi Pembaca Kristen Indonesia pada Masa KiniThe story of Israel’s journey in the Book of Ezra provides a description of how exclusivism and radicalism were able to grow among the group of Israelites returning from exile with Ezra. By paying attention to the social and political dynamics underlying the writing of this book, the reader can suss out how the situation of historical events provoked concerns related to identity within Ezra’s own cohort, eventually changing them to become an exclusivist and radicalized group. This article presents an excavation of the social and political context for the Book of Ezra, including a critique concerning the point of view of its author. The purpose of such an excavation is to investigate how exclusivism and radicalism emerged in the post-exilic period. Through this critical reading, readers, especially Indonesian Christians, can see how the seeds of exclusivism and radicalism grew in this given group of people, as well as how to prevent these seeds from causing conflict in order to preserve the unity in diversity of Indonesia [cf. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika].
Damage Indices and Photogrammetry for Decay Assessment of Stone-Built Cultural Heritage: The Case Study of the San Domenico Church Main Entrance Portal (South Calabria, Italy)In recent decades, increasing attention is being paid to the multidisciplinary approach that allows the performance of both a preventive conservation and a more invasive restoration action. In this context, the present study aims to acquire information and data from field surveys undertaken in San Domenico Church, Southern Calabria, in order to provide a tool for the recording and the inventory of damage and decay phenomena, and assess their causes and scale. The subsequent calculation of damage indices also provided useful information in order to allow the prioritization of conservation and preservation responses.