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  • L’auge del blockchain i les seves possibilitats reals d’aplicació en els registres de les Administracions públiques

    Marina Vega Maza (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2019-02-01)
    <p class="Normal1">La tecnologia <em>blockchain</em> (<em>distributed ledger technology, </em>DLT) dota els objectes d’una identitat digital permanent en el temps al marge de la seva naturalesa, i ha irromput amb força en diversos camps junt amb les criptomonedes. Més enllà de l’auge en l’àmbit financer, la seva aplicació en l’Administració pública es preveu àmplia i rupturista, especialment en el registre de diversos tipus d’actius, i la Unió Europea es configura com un dels seus impulsors principals. No obstant això, aquesta tecnologia està encara en un estat embrionari i la literatura actual tendeix a exaltar-ne els possibles beneficis sense analitzar-ne de manera sistemàtica la implementació o limitacions. Així mateix, costa trobar exemples de projectes consolidats en l’àmbit governamental, sobretot a causa de la reforma normativa que n’ha de precedir l’adopció plena. Aquest article aborda aquesta deficiència i recull un compendi de casos reals de registres d’identitats i de la propietat sobre tecnologia <em>blockchain</em>, de tall europeu i internacional (en països com Estònia, Suècia o Estats Units). A partir d’aquesta anàlisi, i aplicant una doble classificació funcional i tècnica, n’examina els diferents esquemes de funcionament i n’extreu les principals implicacions i reptes en el marc legal vigent. Recorre a una perspectiva tecnicojurídica i presta  atenció especial a aspectes  com els contractes intel·ligents (<em>smart contracts</em>).</p>
  • Digital Copyright

    Litman, Jessica D. (University of Michigan Law School Scholarship Repository, 2006-01-01)
    In 1998, copyright lobbyists succeeded in persuading Congress to enact laws greatly expanding copyright owners' control over individuals' private uses of their works. The efforts to enforce these new rights have resulted in highly publicized legal battles between established media and new upstarts. In this book, law professor Jessica Litman questions whether copyright laws crafted by lawyers and their lobbyists really make sense for the vast majority of us. Should every interaction between ordinary consumers and copyright-protected works be restricted by law? Is it practical to enforce such laws, or expect consumers to obey them? What are the effects of such laws on the exchange of information in a free society? She argues for reforms of the 1998 copyright law that reflect common sense and the way people actually behave in their daily digital interactions. This paperback edition includes an afterword that comments on later developments, such as the end of the Napster story, the rise of peer-to-peer file sharing, the escalation of a full-fledged copyright war, the filing of lawsuits against thousands of individuals, and the June 2005 Supreme Court decision in the Grokster case.
  • The Tao of The DAO: Taxing an Entity That Lives on a Blockchain

    Shakow, David J. (Penn Law: Legal Scholarship Repository, 2018-08-13)
    In this report, Shakow explains how a decentralized autonomous organization functions and interacts with the U.S. tax system and presents the many tax issues that these structures raise. The possibility of using smart contracts to allow an entity to operate totally autonomously on a blockchain platform seems attractive. However, little thought has been given to how such an entity can comply with the requirements of a tax system. The DAO, the first major attempt to create such an organization, failed because of a programming error. If successful examples proliferate in the future, tax authorities will face significant problems in getting these organizations and their owners to comply with the tax laws.
  • 5G and Net Neutrality

    Yoo, Christopher S.; Lambert, Jesse (Penn Law: Legal Scholarship Repository, 2019-01-01)
    Industry observers have raised the possibility that European network neutrality regulations may obstruct the deployment of 5G. To assess those claims, this Chapter describes the key technologies likely to be incorporated into 5G, including millimeter wave band radios, massive multiple input/multiple output (MIMO), ultra-densification, multiple radio access technologies (multi-RAT), and support for device-to-device (D2D) and machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity. It then reviews the business models likely to be associated with 5G, including network management through biasing and blanking, an emphasis on business-to-business (B2B) communications, and network function virtualization/network slicing. It then lays out the network neutrality regulations created by the EU in 2015 as well as the nonbinding interpretive guidelines issued by the Body of Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communication (BEREC) in 2016 and assesses how they will be applied to 5G. Network neutrality’s impact on 5G will likely to be determined by the way that the exceptions for reasonable traffic management and specialised services are interpreted. A broad interpretation should accommodate network slicing and other new business models needed to support the deployment of 5G, while a narrow interpretation could restrict innovation and investment.
  • Korea's Experience in Promoting e-Business Adoption Among Micro and Small Enterprises

    Hanna, James; Yoon, Jeongwon (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-08-13)
    In Korea, around 3.1 million small
 enterprises (99.2 percent of the total) operate with less
 than 50 employees. Micro & small businesses (MSBs),
 however, have lagged well behind in the adoption of IT,
 largely due to insufficient financial, human and
 technological resources. To address this, Korea has taken
 bold measures to help MSBs exploit the potential of ICT as a
 driver of productivity and growth.

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