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  • The Dubious Autonomy of Virtual Worlds

    Lemley, Mark A. (UCI Law Scholarly Commons, 2012-06-01)
  • Avatar Experimentation: Human Subjects Research in Virtual Worlds

    Fairfield, Joshua A.T. (UCI Law Scholarly Commons, 2012-06-01)
  • The Origins of ccTLD Policymaking

    Yu, Peter K. (Texas A&M Law Scholarship, 2004-01-01)
    Extract: A long time ago in a galaxy not so far away, there was a decentralized global network of computers. These computers shared information with each other regardless of how far apart they were and whether there was any direct line of communication between them. In the very beginning, this network was used exclusively by government and military agencies, educational and research institutions, government contractors, scientists, and technology specialists. Instead of the domain names we use today, such as “www. amazon.com,” users typed in numeric addresses, such as “,” and, later, host names to send information to other computers. This network soon expanded, and domain names became a practical necessity. There are at least two reasons. First, alphanumeric texts are generally easier for humans to remember than numeric addresses. Second, as Internet traffic increases and computer systems are reconfigured, the computer server used for a particular Web site may change from time to time. In fact, some busy Web sites might use multiple servers, requiring them to take turns to address requests directed to a single domain name. While the Web site owner (or his or her technical staff) might know internally to which numeric address the Web site corresponds at a particular moment, the general public does not. Domain names are therefore needed for identification purposes.
  • The Never-Ending CCTLD Story

    Yu, Peter K. (Texas A&M Law Scholarship, 2003-01-01)
    Country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs) are the two-letter suffixes used by countries to denote their Internet addresses. Examples include .fr (for France), .tv (for Tuvalu) and .uk (for the United Kingdom). When ccTLDs were first developed, ccTLD policymaking was not high on the international lawmaking agenda. However, as the Internet explodes and as countries begin to realize the potential of this key information infrastructure, ccTLDs have received significant attention from the international community. Added to the ccTLD policymaking debate is the creation and development of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), a non-profit corporation formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions previously performed under U.S. Government contract by IANA and other entities. This book chapter recounts the power struggle over the control of the Domain Name System and authority to delegate and administer ccTLDs. It traces how ccTLD policymaking has been transformed from ad hoc, informal coordination to international, contract-based governance. It also discusses the various major players in the ccTLD debate: ICANN, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), ccTLD managers, national governments, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

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