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  • An Oral History of the Special Olympics in China Volume 2

    Alford, William P.; Liao, Mei; Cui, Fengming (Springer Nature, 2020)
    This open access book contains the oral histories that were inspired by the work of the Special Olympics in conjunction with the 50th anniversary of its founding. The foreword and prefatory materials provide an overview of the Special Olympics and its growth in the People’s Republic of China. The sections that follow record interview transcripts of individuals with intellectual disabilities living in Shanghai. In addition to chronicling the involvement of these individuals and their families in the Special Olympics movement, the interview transcripts also capture their daily lives and how they have navigated school and work.
  • An Oral History of the Special Olympics in China Volume 1

    Alford, William P.; Liao, Mei; Cui, Fengming (Springer Nature, 2020)
    This open access book is unique in presenting the first oral history of individuals with an intellectual disability and their families in China. In this summary volume and the two accompanying volumes that follow, individuals with an intellectual disability tell their life stories, while their family members, teachers, classmates, and co-workers describe their professional, academic, and family relationships. Besides interview transcripts, each volume provides observations and records in real time the daily experiences of people with an intellectual disability. Drawing on the methodologies of sociology and oral history, the summary volume provides an unprecedented account of how people with intellectual disabilities in China understand themselves while also examining pertinent issues of public policy and civil society that have ramifications beyond the field of disability itself.
  • An Oral History of the Special Olympics in China Volume 3

    Alford, William P.; Liao, Mei; Cui, Fengming (Springer Nature, 2020)
    This open access book brings together oral histories that record the experiences of individuals with intellectual disabilities in Shanghai as they participate in their careers. Employees with intellectual disabilities describe their experiences seeking, attaining, and maintaining employment. Their managers, colleagues, and family members also provide keen insight into the challenges and opportunities these individuals have encountered in the process of securing employment. An appendix provides a compilation of employment policies related to people with intellectual disabilities, particularly with respect to Shanghai.
  • Reviewing the Fourth Plenum: Governance and Morality in the Era of Xi Jinping

    Alex Payette (National Sun Yat-sen University, 2019-12-01)
    Plenums are an opportunity for the Central Committee members to meet, and, of course, discuss a number of important issues pertaining to the state of the domestic economy, but also to national governance. As tensions are rising inside the Party-State apparatus – mainly the results of the aftermath of the anti-corruption campaign, the tenuous trade war or the chaos spreading in Hong Kong, all eyes were looking at Xi Jinping to announce the fourth plenum of the nineteenth Party Congress. The latter would come more than 600 days after the third plenum (February 2018), in the context of a tensed post-summer retreat at Beidaihe. The fourth plenum expressed tensions in the top leadership structure, but also highlighted some confusion and uncertainties as to what the Party plans to do to remedy the economic slowdown, to solve the ongoing Hong Kong crisis, and to untangle the trade talks with the United States – talks that only recently reached a tentative agreement. As such, this article reviews and focuses on the conclusions of the fourth plenum of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party.
  • Creativity East and West

    Phemister, Pauline; Scaltsas, Theodore; Liu, Xiaoting; other; Liu, Yuanyuan (The University of Edinburgh, 2020-06-15)
    This thesis is about the creativity in the East and the West, but I will mainly focus on the view of creativity in ancient Greek philosophy and Chinese philosophy. 
 
 In the first chapter, I will explore the concept of creativity, the history of creativity, and the research on creativity, including the creativity research in psychology and philosophy, which will set the stage for further disscusion. Then in the second chapter, I will start from Plato’s dialogue, Ion, and explore the traditional theory of creativity in ancient Greek philosophy, and claim that their creative ability is inspired by divine being. After this, I will show people’s view on creativity has undergone a process of demystification. During this process, people gradually began to resist the divine source and explore the world individually and independently. Meanwhile, the meaning of the concept of creativity has become broader, since it is not limited to poem any more, but it can be applied to other fields, such as art, science, and education. 
 
 In the third chapter, I will turn to the modern creativity theory, including the lateral thinking and emotional creativity, and explore how to be creative with lateral thinking techniques and how to improve creativity through emotion regulation. 
 
 After the examination in the West, I will turn to the theory of creativity in Chinese philosophy, by focusing on classical works in Daoism and Confucianism. In the fourth chapter, I will explore the view of creativity in philosophy of Daoism. I will claim that the creativity in Daoism is natural and cosmological, and there is no external creative source, so I will claim it is self- creativity, which is distinct from the ancient Western creativity pushed by external divine power. 
 
 In the fifth chapter, I will argue that the creativity in Confucianism is evolutionary, which is unlike the revolutionary creativity in the West, and I will propose the way to become creative in Confucianism based on its classics, Analects, and then will explore the creativity principle and how the agent cultivate their creative ability in Confucianism. 
 
 In the conclusion, I will summarize the difference between the creativity in East and West, from the perspective of the source of creativity, nature of creativity. I will claim that the source of creativity in ancient Greek philosophy is divine being, whereas there is no divine source for creativity in Chinese philosophy, therefore, the creativity in the West traditionally is inspired creativity, while the creativity in the East traditionally is natural and cosmological creativity. In addition, the concept of creativity in the West is revolutionary, whereas the concept of creativity in the East is evolutionary and the moral function of creativity is also addressed in Chinese philosophy.

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