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Coloniality and the Science of Applied Behavior AnalysisHuman life is to be universally cherished and valued. Policies about how to value lives are often developed following gross human rights violations. Some of the most horrific violations have occurred under the guise of biomedical and behavioral research. As a result, policies have been developed to protect participants. Presumably, the primary responsibility of the researcher is their protection. There are, however, potential tensions between protections and research agendas, which set the occasion for over selection of participants with vulnerabilities. This dynamic may establish competing contingencies that devalue, and potentially harm, participants. Power imbalances inherent in the researcher-participant relationship establish the researcher as the dominant knowledge seeking authority and the participant as the subservient subject. Ideally, research in applied behavior analysis is driven by a steadfast orientation toward the enhancement of human life and the amelioration of suffering. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of human rights trends in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. The dependent measures are based on ethical principles established for the protection of participants and recommendations concerning participatory research practices in applied behavior analysis. The results indicate that in some cases, protections have been minimally reported. Furthermore, power imbalances are highly likely given the processes and outcomes reported. The trends appear to be moving in an unfavorable direction in most cases. Findings are discussed on three levels: 1) a conceptual analysis of potential contingencies that influence applied behavior analytic research, 2) considerations around coloniality, and, 3) recommendations to neutralize and diffuse power imbalances to ensure the applied spirit of the science is actualized.
Relationship of Proximal Predictors of Success in a PsyD Program on Alumni Distal FactorsDue to the new Standards of Accreditation (SoA) by the American Psychological Association (APA), implemented in 2017, there is minimal research to evaluate how proximal competency factors within clinical psychology programs relate to distal outcomes of alumni. This study consisted of 65 doctoral psychology graduates who completed an APA alumni survey 2 and 5 years after graduation. Findings showed strong positive relationships between faculty mentoring, foundational knowledge, program support and clinical training. Results showed proximal factors of faculty mentoring significantly predicted graduates would be employed as psychologists, while program support (peers and faculty) significantly predicted lifelong learning of alumni. Career success of alumni aligned with APA SoA’s expectations for post-graduate competencies, with most alumni practicing as psychologists. Moreover, results indicated a statistically significant relationship between lifelong learning and employment as a psychologist. Study results are useful for informing doctoral program development, as well as identifying what factors within a program predict alumni success, according to the APA SoA competency model.
Do we really know how many clinical trials are conducted ethically? Why research ethics committee review practices need to be strengthened and initial steps we could take to strengthen them.Research Ethics Committees (RECs) play a critical gatekeeping role in clinical trials. This role is meant to ensure that only those trials that meet certain ethical thresholds proceed through their gate. Two of these thresholds are that the potential benefits of trials are reasonable in relation to risks and that trials are capable of producing a requisite amount of social value. While one ought not expect perfect execution by RECs of their gatekeeping role, one should expect routine success in it. This article reviews a range of evidence showing that substantial numbers of ethically tainted trials are receiving REC approvals. Many of the trials are early phase trials that evidence shows have benefits that may not be reasonable compared with their risks and many others are later trials that evidence shows may lack sufficient social value. The evidence pertains to such matters as methodologically inadequate preclinical studies incapable of supporting the inferences that REC members must make about the prospects for potential benefit needed to offset the risks in early phase trials and sponsorship bias that can cause improperly designed, conducted, analysed and reported later phase trials. The analysis of the evidence makes clear that REC practices need to be strengthened if they are to adequately fulfil their gatekeeping role. The article also explores options that RECs could use in order to improve their gatekeeping function.
Оценка качества высшего образования: обзор международного опытаThe article reviews international practice in managing and reforming national education quality assurance systems. Due to the influence of debates about instruments that have the potential to contribute to the development of quality education, many countries over the past decades have elaborated a system for assessing higher education quality. The review discusses both countries known for a long history of quality assurance (England or the United States) and cases that, under the influence of external pressures, developed a model of quality assessment from scratch. There are three significant trends in international experience. Firstly, countries either substantially reform the format of accreditation or abandon it entirely. There is a consensus among experts that the aim of the assessment system should be improving the quality of education. The accreditation is not suitable for it, since this format is generally related to satisfying the minimum standards. Secondly, more and more experts emphasize the advantages of quality audit, its format being related to assessing the university’s ability to autonomously maintain high standards of education quality. Third, the rejection of a unified assessment of universities is considered necessary, as it leads to a decrease in the diversity of the education system. A quality assurance system should take into account the specific features of the university, since the differentiated education system is more responsive to the demands of the labour market, the needs of students and society. The idea of creating uniform quality standards outside Russia and several countries of Eastern Europe not only lacks popularity, but is also criticized actively. All these trends allow us to conclude that the current Russian education quality assurance system does not meet international trends. In this regard, the experience of other countries in organizing the national system of education quality assessment is seen as particularly relevant to the context of Russian higher education.
Autonomy, Expansion, and Quality in Higher Education: An Analysis on İlhan Tekeli’s Research on Higher EducationFor about 50 years İlhan Tekeli has been a paramount figure who has written many articles and books on higher education issues in Turkey. This study focuses on how Tekeli discusses Turkey's higher education history, problems and autonomy in higher education, evolution of higher education, growth and quality issues. Tekeli claims, in 1946 universities became au-tonomous and the autonomy constitutionalized with the 1961 Constitution, which gave universities a broader autonomy. But after the establishment of the Board of Higher Education (BHE) in 1981, universities lost their autonomy, and were put under the control of central administration with the increased pressure over the universities. Tekeli defined administra-tive autonomy as a key feature of the university. For Tekeli, extremely strong and exceptional powers of rectors bring about hardly impossible to mention the freedom of faculty members and a participatory administration.Tekeli stated that there is a need for a reform that will provide autonomy and make universities more democratic. Also, Tekeli emphasized that expansion of the higher education system cannot be assured by without giving priority to the training of qualified doctorate academics