The African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND) is a peer reviewed scholarly journal. The journal is envisaged to enable dissemination and sharing of food and nutrition information issues on the continent. It taps social science, biochemical, food and nutrition related research and information. It also addresses issues related to agriculture, food security, and nutrition that affect Africa's development and people's livelihoods. It targets and is intended to serve the research and intellectual community; African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and development oriented bilateral and multilateral agencies; and African public institutions working towards solving food and nutrition problems through sound policies, and addressing issues that affect the African continent. AJFAND is open to both African and non-African contributors. Besides academic research, the journal provides an avenue for sharing information on national-level food and nutrition programs. QUALITY remains the driver of our efforts and not QUANTITY. The journal carries out a major mentoring and capacity building role for budding African scholars, and also gives visibility to African scholars in general by highlighting and sharing their work internationally.


The Globethics library contains articles of African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development as of vol. 1(2001) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Effect of lemon juice concentration on proximate composition of cheese produced from cow's milk

    The quality and composition of cheese produced in Ethiopia may vary due to the quality and composition of the milk, method of manufacture, and the  process passed from parents to children by observation and practical experiences. In view of this, the effect of lemon juice concentration on the  proximate composition of cheese produced from cow’s milk was investigated. The treatment consisted of three lemon juice concentrations (20 mL, 30 mL,  and 40 mL) and two milk sources (Menelik and Yigezu dairy farms). The experiment was laid out as a Complete Randomized Design (RCD) in factorial  arrangements (2×3=6 treatments) and replicated three times per treatment. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, and crude fat) of  cheese samples were analyzed using standard methods and sensory quality (aroma, taste, color, and overall acceptability) of cheese were determined  using a 10-member panel. Lemon juice concentration has a significant (P< 0.05) effect on proximate composition and sensory characteristics of cheese.  The proximate composition result showed that the highest moisture content was 56.23% in the Menelik milk sample treated at 20 mL lemon juice  concentration, ash, and crude protein content were highest, 2.88%, and 16.31% in the Menelik milk sample treated at 30 mL lemon juice concentration. A significantly high crude fat (24.99%) content was observed in cheese processed with a 20 mL lemon juice treated milk sample. So, significantly high  protein (16.31%), crude fat (24.99%), and moisture (56.23%) contents were observed in cheese, processed using lemon juice. The sensory quality result  showed that the highest overall acceptability was 6.00 in the Menelik milk sample treated at 30 mL lemon juice concentration. The sensory quality of the  cheese sample has average values of aroma, taste, color, and overall acceptability of 5.12, 5.35, 6.00, and 5.48 on a 7-point hedonic scale, respectively,  and was liked slightly. The study concluded that lemon juice concentration had a significant effect on the proximate composition and sensory quality of  cheese.  
  • Effect of citrus fruit (Citrus sinensis, Citrus limon and Citrus aurantifolia) rind essential oils on preservation of chicken meat artificially infected with bacteria

    Irokanulo , E.O.; Oluyomi , B.W.; Nwonuma, C.O. (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Essential oils (EOs) obtained from a wide variety of plants have become popular with increased scientific interest as potential natural agents for food  preservation. Two concentrations of rind EOs (400 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml) from three species of citrus fruit; Citrus sinensis (Sweet orange), Citrus limon  (Lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (Lime) were used to treat fresh chicken meat inoculated with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhi ATCC 20971  and Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028 to evaluate their protective abilities on bacteria-contaminated meat The EOs were extracted from the ground rinds  by hydro-distillation. Alongside the EOs, sodium nitrate (NaNO3) was used as a positive control preservative. A viable count was carried out to determine  the bacteria load reduction on the inoculated fresh chicken meat. After 24 hours of treatment, the results showed that the EOs had no adverse effect on  the physical attributes of the meat: the color and smell of the chicken meat were unaltered compared with the negative control (None EO and NaNO3  treated meat) that showed evidence of putrefaction through color change and foul smell. The two- lime rind EOs concentrations used to treat the  Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 inoculated meat reduced the viable count of the organism by 7.9 log compared to the Escherichia coli ATCC 25922-inoculated  meat which received no rind EOs or NaNO3 treatment. Other results showed that sweet orange (SO) rind EOs (400 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml) treatment of meat inoculated with Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028 had similar but mild preservative effects as both treatments reduced the log of the bacteria by 1.1  and 0.8, respectively. In comparison with NaNO3, the EOs treatment had a significant (p<0.05) preservative effect on the bacteria-inoculated meats.  Findings from this study, therefore, suggest that Citrus spp. rind EOs have good potential as natural preservative for chicken meat. However,  notwithstanding the relative positive organoleptic results observed in this study, further investigations on the prolonged preservation effect of the EOs  on the physical attributes of fresh chicken meat need to be undertaken. 
  • Role of small-scale trees plantation and farmers’ attitude and skill toward propagation of indigenous and exotic trees: The case of Sidama, Ethiopia

    Keneni , Y.G.; Senbeta, A.F.; Sime, G. (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    The tree land cover in Ethiopia is declining due to deforestation, agricultural land expansion, overgrazing, firewood use and construction. Farm tree  plantation has a potential to improve tree cover and the country's vision towards reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission by 2030. This study was  conducted in Sidama of Ethiopia to assess the role of small-scale tree plantations, and the attitudes and skills of farmers in propagating and conserving  indigenous trees as compared to exotic ones, and to identify major impediments for exotic and indigenous tree plantation. By using stratified random  sampling, 149 household heads were selected and interviewed, and the tree plantation practices of 46 randomly selected farmers were observed. Advice and support given to farmers concerning tree plantation and nursery care were collected from 16 Woreda Rural Development Experts. During the study a  total of 46 tree species were identified, and 92% of the trees on the farmland were exotic. The percentage composition of the five most dominant tree  species were Eucalyptus spp. (79.6%), Cupressus spp (8.5%), Cordia africana (4.8%), Grevillea robusta (3.3%), and Millettia ferruginea (1.8%). The trees  provide several direct and indirect socioeconomic and ecological importance (construction, fuel, income, medicinal value, fencing, asset for present and  next generation, fodder for livestock, garden shade, aesthetic, recreation, spiritual value, improve soil fertility and environmental impact remediation).  The majority of farmers prefer exotic trees due to their fast growth, ease of nursery preparation and fast establishment, and higher income generation in  shorter period. Though farmers like to plant indigenous trees for their ecological services such as improving soil fertility, producing durable household  utensils, shading and other ecological values; land shortage and lack of knowledge on plant biology, nursery preparation and propagation  method constrained its plantation. Therefore, introduction of appropriate technologies to the existing farming system is required for sustainable indigenous tree plantation in the study area.
  • Association between nutrition knowledge, lifestyle, dietary practices and nutritional status among civil servants in western Nigeria

    Akinmoladun , O.F.; Oluyede , O.J.; Femi , F.A.; Olaitan, O.O.; Nesamvuni, C.N. (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Nutrition knowledge plays a crucial role in promoting healthier eating practices, leading to the maintenance of healthy body weight. This is because  knowledge of dietary guidelines and healthy eating habits among adults has been positively correlated. However, in terms of dietary habits,  presumptions that the supposed civil servants in some parts of Western Nigeria are knowledgeable about basic dietary practices are yet to be explored.  Therefore, this study was designed to assess the nutrition knowledge, lifestyle, dietary practices, and nutritional status among men and women civil  servants in Ado, Ekiti State, Nigeria. A structured interviewer questionnaire was administered to civil servants (180 male and 220 female elderly respondents, <60years old) to collect data on economic and socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, lifestyle, and dietary habits.  Anthropometric measurements were also taken. The quantitative were coded, collated, and analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics were used to  summarize data from categorical variables. Chi-square test, at a 5% confidence level, was used to establish any significant relationship between food  intake parameters and nutrition knowledge. Most of the respondents (66.7%) were affected by the delayed payment of their monthly salaries. The total  knowledge scores revealed that 13.25%, 41.25% and 45.50% of the respondents had poor, fair and good nutrition knowledge, respectively. Unfortunately, this higher nutrition knowledge does not translate into good dietary habits. Data obtained revealed bad eating habits, as a more significant percentage  of the respondents regularly ate high-fat foods (99.5%), ate outside the home (85.3%) and did not take vegetables (83.3%) nor fruits (60%) daily. There  exists, however, a significant and positive relationship between nutrition knowledge and physical activity (P=0.043), high-fat foods consumption (P<0.001),  daily fruits consumption (P<0.001) and vegetable consumption (P<0.001). In conclusion, the discrepancy between the respondents' high  nutrition knowledge and their seemingly poor lifestyle and dietary behaviour show that nutrition knowledge alone does not translate into good dietary   behaviour.
  • Mobile phone-assisted agricultural extension services: user competency and usage frequency in eastern Ghana

    Nyaplue-Daywhea , C.; Ahiakpa, J.K.; Mensah , O.A.; Annor-Frempong, F.; Adjei-Nsiah, S. (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Adoption studies have mainly focused on econometric and quantitative modelling that usually assume smallholder farmers competently adopt  agricultural technologies. This study provides novel insights on user competency and frequency of usage of mobile telephony for agricultural extension  services among smallholder farmers and agricultural extension agents (AEAs) and key factors that impede the adoption process. The study examined  users’ competencies and mobile phone usage frequency for access and delivery of agricultural extension services in Eastern Ghana. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 95 AEAs and 330 smallholder farmers in five districts of the Eastern region of Ghana and data were collected  through semistructured interviews. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse the data. Results  showed substantial differences between AEAs and smallholder farmers’ competency in the use of mobile phones for agricultural extension services.  Socio-demographic characteristics of smallholder farmers and AEAs correlated with usage frequency of mobile phones for access to extension services  and delivery. Educational level, amount of weekly expenditure of money on mobile phone use, mobile phone network quality, income level, and age of both AEAs and smallholder farmers had positive and significant correlations with frequency of usage of mobile phones. User competency differentially  impacts the frequency of mobile phone use in agricultural extension services between AEAs and smallholders. High call tariffs and access to recharge  cards are major challenges in using mobile phones for agricultural extension in the study areas. The study shows components of the adoption theory of  compatibility, and complexity where an innovation fits within the socio-cultural framework and perceived difficulty of use. Thus, the frequent use of voice  calls is indicative of early stages of the diffusion process and may diversify into other applications in the future. Farmer-based organisations should be  resourced to support training of farmers to use mobile phones to improve access to agricultural information dissemination. Integrating voice-based agricultural information services (IVRs) into the current SMS-based agricultural extension services in Ghana could potentially boost extension service  delivery to smallholder farmers in the Eastern region and across the country. The Ministry of Food and Agriculture may partner with key stakeholders and  mobile service providers to offer hands-on capacity building to smallholder farmers and AEAs in video calling/conferencing, multimedia service, and  social media to enhance their competencies for improved agricultural extension services. 
  • The role of urban vegetable production in Jos (Nigeria) as a source of livelihood

    Many cities of developing countries experience widespread poverty due to accelerated migration of people from rural to urban areas as well as high population growth rates. The city of Jos in Plateau State is experiencing rapid population growth as well, with the attendant problems of food insecurity, insufficient income, unemployment and environmental degradation. This study assessed the role that urban vegetable production plays in providing a source of livelihood to small-scale farmers in Jos. The farmers were registered with the third Fadama Project in Nigeria. Such projects derive their name from the native Hausa word ‘fadama’ which means irrigable lands on flood-prone and low-lying plains. Forty percent (40%) of urban vegetable farmers were randomly selected to have a sample size of 94 participants. A mixed method approach was used and this involved questionnaire-administered interviews. The primary data obtained were transcribed and subjected to ANOVA and t-test analysis. From the results obtained, most of the vegetables farm plots are located predominantly in the southern part of the study area. Results indicated that vegetable farming is playing an important role in providing 84% part-time and 5% full-time employment opportunities as well as reducing food insecurity among the study participants. In addition, most farmers achieved an income of more than the minimum wage of ₦30, 000 (US$ 72. 24) as approved by the Nigerian Government. The results also showed that lack of credit facilities, seasonal variations and the high cost of farm inputs and equipment are the most serious problems faced by participants. Other challenges associated with small-scale urban farming entailed the negative environmental impacts that may lead to the decline of environmental quality, thus undermining long term sustainability. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences among participants in terms of the relationship between the type of vegetables they produce, incomes generated, environmental impacts and their demographical attributes. These attributes are the age, gender, marital status, and educational background of participants. Based on these findings, and the socio-economic importance of vegetable farming in this study area, governments and financial institutions should establish better policies in order to solve the problems faced by small-scale vegetable farmers in urban areas.
  • Effects of mode and timing of calcium chloride application on tissue calcium concentration and acceptability of mango fruits

    Bitange , NM; Chemining’wa , GN; Ambuko , JL; Owino, WO (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Mango (Mangifera indica L) production in Kenya directly supports approximately 200,000 farmers and many other beneficiaries. Despite this, its production suffers from post-harvest losses due to the fruits' short shelf life in ambient conditions. Calcium maintains cell integrity, strengthens the cell wall, membrane structure, and thus increases shelf life. A completely randomized block design with a split plot arrangement was used to compare the effect of spraying and immersion of ‘Van Dyke' mango fruits at maturity or 15 days later in calcium chloride at different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, or 0%) and times on the fruit ripening rate and organoleptic acceptance. The peel firmness (N), total soluble solids (0Brix), flesh color (Ho), beta carotene (mg/100ml), and carbon dioxide evolution (ml/kg/hr) of fruits were determined at time 0 and every two days for up to eight days in ambient conditions. Additionally, organoleptic characteristics, flesh firmness, calcium concentration (g/mg), and their correlations were determined. Fruits immersed in calcium chloride at maturity had higher retained peel firmness (10.6 N, 10.3 N), deeper flesh color (37.45, 36.78), lower total soluble solids (14, 13.8), a lower carbon dioxide evolution (30.7 ml/kg/hr), higher beta carotene and higher flesh calcium concentration than fruits exposed to other treatments. Fruits sprayed at maturity outperformed those sprayed 15 days later in the studied parameters. Flesh calcium content correlated positively with flesh firmness (r= 0.913, r= 0.852), flesh color (r= 0.828, r= 0.841), fruit aroma (r=0.8199, r=0.841), and negatively with skin shriveling (r=-0.778, r=-0.806) and fruit flavor (r=-0.811, r=-0.829). Flesh firmness correlated negatively with skin shriveling (r=-0.868, r=-0.788) and fruit flavor (r=-0.8869, r=-0.821), but positively with peel color (r=0.9115, r=0.856) and aroma (r=0.907, r=0.848). Skin shriveling was found to have a negative relationship with peel color (r=-0.944, r=-0.93) and aroma (r=-0.944, r=-0.938), but a positive relationship with fruit flavor (r=0.933, r=0.947). Peel color correlated positively with aroma (r=0.979, r=0.977) and negatively with fruit flavor (r=-0.962, r=-0.950), respectively. Despite the effectiveness of post-harvest calcium chloride immersion in extending fruit shelf life, optimal use is advised to avoid deteriorated pulp flavor and increased shriveling. More research is needed to determine how calcium chloride can be made available to the fruit while it is still attached to the tree.
  • The influence of cooking methods on the antioxidant status of Tetrapleura tetrapetra

    Africa is blessed with a rich array of local spices such as Tetrapleura tetraptera. The culinary uses of T. tetraptera are many. The seed of Uhiokirihio is majorly used in the preparation of ‘Banga’ (palm fruit) soup, meat pepper soup and other types of soup in the southern part of Nigeria. It is also commonly used in soups of nursing mothers to prevent post-partum contractions. The rich antioxidant activity of this spice has been reported. There is, however, a dearth of information on the effect of different cooking methods on its antioxidant activity. This study, therefore, evaluated the effect of cooking methods on the antioxidant status of the seeds of Tetrapleura tetraptera. The raw seeds of the spice were both toasted and boiled separately for 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, respectively. The samples were analysed for anti-nutrients, vitamin contents and antioxidant properties. Anti-nutrient evaluation of the ethanolic (80% ethanol) extract revealed that both toasting and boiling time caused significant (p<0.05) variations in all the anti-nutrients studied. Total phenolics increased (p<0.05) from 20.80mg/100g to 28.53mg/100g for toasted samples and from 20.80mg/100g to 30.51mg/100g for boiled samples, respectively. Both cooking methods caused significant reduction in the phytate and tannin levels of the seeds. At the end of the cooking processes, tannin level was reduced by 62.07 % for boiling and 75.68 % for toasting treatment. The cooking methods led to significant reduction in both the vitamin C and β- carotene levels of the samples. Boiling for 20 min caused a 91.98% decrease in vitamin c and a 59.52 % decrease in β-carotene while toasting reduced these nutrients by 86.73 % and 39.88 %, respectively. Antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH scavenging activity and FRAP showed a significant rise with increase in cooking time. The DPPH activity of the toasted samples increased from 22.06μg/ml to 27.64 μg/ml while the boiled samples increased from 22.06μg/ml to 43.26μg/ml. It was observed that boiling led to a greater increase in total phenolics and antioxidant activity than toasting. It could, therefore, be concluded that cooking T. tetraptera seeds would improve its antioxidant properties.
  • Determinants of trade flow of some selected nontraditional agricultural export commodities in Nigeria

    This study analysed the determinants of trade flow of some selected non-traditional agricultural export commodities in Nigeria, for the period 2007 to 2017. The objective of the study was to analyse the factors that determine the export of these commodities. The study used trade data of thirty-six  importing countries of these commodities around the world. The secondary data used was sourced from various institutions’ databases. A balanced  panel data from 36 countries for the years 2007-2017 were used with one dependent variable and ten explanatory variables (a total of n=396, N=36, and  T=11); all variables were expressed in natural logarithm. The gravity estimation model was used in data analysis. The Hausman test was used in model  selection and the test rejected the null hypothesis (random effects were efficient). Therefore, the fixed effects model was used in the gravity model  results’ interpretation. The gravity model results indicate that Nigeria’s export of non-traditional commodities (classified as HS12 in the United Nations  International Trade Statistics) follows the basic gravity model apriori expectations, implying that bilateral trade flows will increase in proportion to the trading partner’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and decrease in proportion to the distance involved.The level of openness of Nigeria’s economy and that  of the importing countries were major determinants of trade flow of Nigeria’s HS12 commodity exports. This variable carried the expected positive sign  for both Nigeria and its trading Partners and was also statistically significant at the 5% level. However, the real exchange rate variable was not a major  determinant of HS12 commodity trade. The distance variable was statistically significant indicating the need for regional trade expansion. The dummy  variable of the trading partner being an African country was positive and a significant factor in the determinants of the HS12 commodities. However,  colonial or official language ties were negatively signed and significant, implying that this was not a major contributor to trade in these commodities. The  study recommends that favorable import and export promotion policies and trade openness to boost growth in the quantity of non-traditional  exports should form part of government trade policies; and Nigeria should also take advantage of the proposed African Free Trade Area considering the  gains she stands to make through proximity in distance.  
  • Enhancing the enzymatic browning inhibition capacity of Moringa oleifera seed extract via the Maillard reaction

    Vhangani , LN; Mogashoa , L; Van Wyk, J (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    The antioxidant and anti-browning activity of heated plant extracts have been attributed to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) via the Maillard reaction (MR). The inhibitory effect of heated Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extract on banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was investigated. The Plain MO seed extracts and those with added glucose and glycine (1.5 mM each) were heated at 100°C for 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. The pH and brown colour development decreased and increased significantly (P <0.05) with increased reaction time, respectively, with heated moringa glucose-glycine HMGGL for 120 min exhibiting the highest pH reduction (2.58) and darkest extracts at an L* value of 8.11. This phenomenon is associated with progression of the MR. With reference to enzymatic browning, heated MO seed extracts exhibited stronger inhibitory effect against banana PPO activity in vivo and in vitro than the unheated counterpart. Evident to this are the higher inhibition percentages and lower ΔE values. Among model systems, the highest in vitro browning inhibition was exhibited mostly by longer heating times of 60 and 120 min. Model system HMGGL 120 min proved to be superior at 96% inhibition, which was comparable to known synthetic commercial antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA) at 99%, as well as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA), both at 100% inhibition. In vivo enzymatic browning inhibition followed a similar trend, where the brown pigment (melanin) intensified as shown by an increase in ΔE as the storage time increased from 0.5 to 24 h. The model system UMGGL exhibited highest inhibition of brown melanin (p <0.05). Although it was the best amongst other model systems, it was surpassed by synthetic antioxidants AA, EDTA and CA, which were ranked amongst the top three in inhibiting brown pigment formation in vivo. To further illustrate the effect of MR augmented MO seed extracts on enzyme activity inhibition, UMGGL 60 and 120 at 5 and 24 h storage surpassed the inhibitory effect of AA. At the said storage times, AA lost its inhibitory potential against pigment formation. This was due to oxidation of AA to form dehydroascorbic acid, which lacks inhibitory potential. This study proved that heating MO plant extracts increases their enzymatic browning inhibition potential, furthermore, the inhibitory capacity was heightened when reacted via the MR.
  • Physico-chemical, proximate, mineral and bioactive composition of Garcinia buchananii baker fruit from Uganda and Rwanda

    Omujal, F.; Okullo, J.B.L.; Bigirimana, C.; Isubikalu, P.; Agea, J.G.; Malinga, M.; Obaa, B.B.; Bizuru, E. (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Garcinia buchananii Baker (Family,Cluciaceae/Guttiferae) is an underutilized indigenous fruit tree that produces edible fruits that are used as both food  and medicine in tropical Africa. This study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics of G. buchananii fruits collected from Uganda and Rwanda.  Ripe fruits were harvested during their peak seasons in Masaka and Bugesera Districts in Uganda and Rwanda, respectively. The fruits were analyzed for  physical characteristics including; fruit weight, fruit size (that is length and width), number of seeds per fruit, seed weight, seed dimensions(length, width  and breadth); chemical characteristics (pH and titratable acidity), proximate composition (moisture content, protein, fat, dietary fibre, carbohydrates and  energy), mineral composition (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu), and bioactive components (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins; and antioxidant activity). Data were statistically analyzed using a student T-test (p≤0.05). The results indicated that fruit weight and pulp content ranged from  6.3±1.3-9.5±2.8g and 54.1±10.6- 81.1±6.5%, respectively. Titratable acidity of the pulp ranged from 6.1±0.8 to 7.1±0.1 %. Nutritionally, dietary fibre,  vitamin C, iron and zinc ranged from 20.0±0.4 -22.6±1.8 g/100g, 32.8±3.2-42.0±3.3 mg/100g, 4.8±0.2 - 6.5±0.8 mg/100g and 1.1±0.0 -2.5±0.1 mg/100g,  respectively. The total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity ranged from 996.7±50.5 - 1147.5±47.4 mg/g GAE (Garlic Acid Equivalent) and 8.0±0.2-  8.4±0.1 mg/100g AAE (Ascorbic Acid Equivalent) as IC50, respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the physical characteristics (weight,  length, width and breadth), nutritional composition and bioactive components of the fruit samples of the two countries. Assessment of the nutrients  indicated that the pulp was rich in vitamin C, iron, zinc, copper and dietary fibre. The pulp also contained phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity.  The seeds had 6-24% crude oil content with palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic as major fatty acids. The total unsaturated fatty acids in the seed oil ranged  from 58.4-59.5%. Although this finding showed significant differences (P≤0.05) in the physical and chemical of G. buchananii fruit from Uganda and Rwanda, the nutritional composition and bioactive component information has shown the potential of the fruits for processing into high-value  nutraceuticals.   
  • The theory of planned behaviour in exploring dietary diversity practices among mothers in informal settlements in Kenya

    Anyango , L.J.; Waswa , J.; Okeyo , D.O.; Mugambi, M. (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    One of the leading causes of malnutrition, which contributes to morbidity and mortality in children, is lack of dietary diversity. Despite remarkable  improvement in exclusive breastfeeding in Kenya, there are still poor dietary diversity practices among children aged 6-24 months. Limited studies have  applied the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to examine the factors that influence dietary diversity practices in informal settlements in Kenya. The  objective of this qualitative study was to explore behavioral, normative, control beliefs, intention, and dietary diversity practices, based on the TPB. The  study sites were Kibera in Nairobi, Manyatta A in Kisumu, and Kaptembwo in Nakuru. Participants were 64 mothers of children aged 6-24 months  selected using purposive sampling. Nine focus groups, each comprising of 5-10 mothers were conducted and the data analyzed using thematic analysis.  Using a focus group guide, based on the TPB, mothers described salient beliefs regarding their attitude, subjective norms and perceived control of  dietary diversity. Analysis of the data showed that some mothers had intended to introduce solid foods at six months. However, barriers such as mother  not feeding well, baby’s hunger, perceived insufficient breast milk production, and return to work led to earlier introduction of foods. Most mothers  indicated their intention to give a variety of foods to their children but were hindered by barriers such as poverty/inadequate money, non-availability of  food at home, and inadequate knowledge about complementary feeding. Friends, health professionals, fathers, neighbours and friends were cited as  most salient referents that influenced the dietary diversity practices. The most frequently provided starchy foods were chappatis, mandazis, potatoes,  rice, weetabix, porridge, and ugali. In conclusion, the results indicate that mothers had positive attitude towards dietary diversity. The ‘significant others’  who mostly influenced dietary diversity practices were health professionals, fathers, and friends. Future interventions need to target mothers' perceived  childfeeding responsibilities, influence subjective norms, and increase parents' perceived control over child feeding. 
  • A review on some factors affecting wool quality parameters of sheep

    Gelaye , G.; Sandip, B.; Mestawet, T. (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Wool is a natural fibre with a unique amalgamation of properties that are exploited in garment industry. The wool industry, in particular the production of fine wool, has a notable role in world trade and the price of the wool is dependent on quality. Accordingly, wool characteristics have direct impact on wool  prices set by processors and industry. These properties can particularly benefit the wearer of the garment during exercise. There are different  factors affecting wool quality parameters both with direct and indirect involvement. The environmental and genetics are the main factors affecting  quality and quantity of wool from sheep. Infections related to skin and parasitic infestations have direct influence on the quality of wool. Breed or  genotype is one of the main genetic factors that influences the product and productivity as well as quality of wool from sheep that is fleece from different  sheep breeds is different in its both physical and chemical characteristics. Hormonal changes in relation to sex of sheep also have effect on the  wool quality traits. The main objective of this review was to define and explore key wool characteristics, such as staple length, number of crimp, fibre  type, fibre diameter, wool wax and scouring yield in regards to quality and interventions approaches for improving. In most of studies, non-genetic  factors such as age, season, shearing period, shearing frequency and nutrition have a significant effect on traits viz. staple length, wool wax, scouring  yield, fibre diameter and for other traits as well. Conducting a research on wool quality characteristics is an operative way of defining and differentiating  the quality of wool. Acquiring knowledge of the wool quality characteristics can help to manage the end use products, consumers comfort and processing intensity. Therefore, an understanding of the factors affecting physical and chemical properties of wool traits is important to improve the  quality of wool through genetics and management interventions. This article reviews some important quality attributes of wool for the product and  productivity development and value addition. 
  • Factors associated with adoption of indigenous biscuit/ processing technology by mothers of school-going children in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Ayansina , SO; Adeola , AA; Fasoyiro , SB; Famakinde, SA (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Wheat is the conventional flour in biscuit manufacture. However, the use of wheat is not economical due to the fact that huge foreign reserve is used in its importation in Nigeria. In addition, wheat-based foods are associated with celiac disease, hence the use of non-wheat crops like tubers and legumes in biscuit processing is desirable. A previous study had developed a nutritionally improved biscuit from underutilized crops, such as sweet potato, cooking banana and pigeon pea. The present study examined factors associated with adoption of the indigenous biscuit processing technology using non-wheat flours by mothers of school going children in Ogun State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was utilized to select 120 respondents from the list of 1,123 registered farmers in 10 extension blocks in Ogun State. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents. Respondents were taught the various stages of biscuit processing through demonstration. Knowledge about the various stages of biscuit processing was measured on a 5-point Likert Scale. The five points used were: extremely understood, moderately understood, somewhat understood, slightly understood and not understood. Level of adoption indicates the psychological stages that an individual passes through before making a final decision to use a particular innovation. Adoption Level was thus measured on Knowledge, Persuasions, Decision, Confirmation and Continuation decision. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance, Chi square, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Results revealed the mean age of respondents to be 40.35 ±10.33 years. Most respondents were traders, and the highest educational qualification was National Diploma (2.5%). The main sources of agricultural information were radio (64.2%) and extension agents (60%). There were high adoption rates in baking/production (87.7%) and flour blending (85.5%). Reasons for technology adoption were affordability (80.8%), availability of ingredients (81.7%) and relative advantage (80.8%). Adoption of technology was associated with age (r = 0.284, p < 0.05), quality of technology delivery (r = 0.267, p < 0.05), marital status (χ2 = 1.081, p < 0.05) and membership of association (χ2 = 12.055, p < 0.05). In conclusion, effective adoption of technology could be achieved among young married mothers.
  • Development of common bean genotypes with high iron and zinc seed concentrations and superior canning and agronomic quality traits

    Amongi , W; Kato, F; Male , A; Mbiu , J; Mukankusi, C (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent worldwide but mainly affects children under five years of age and women of reproductive age. One of the main causes of anemia in these groups is diet incapable of meeting daily iron requirements. Biofortification of staple foods is an approach aimed at contributing to reduction of anemia in Africa, and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one of the leading staple foods in East and Central Africa, has gained attention as a valuable source of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Its usefulness in improving iron status of iron anemic women and children is documented. Natural variation in iron and associated micronutrients like zinc exists in beans but their concentrations are below the target levels to meet daily requirements. This study aimed to develop and identify potential bean genotypes that surpass the HarvestPlus threshold of 90 ppm seed iron for possible promotion as high iron and zinc beans, and utilization in hybridization programs targeting these minerals, productivity and market traits. Advanced 578 genotypes were evaluated in five genotype groups planted in three locations from 2016 to 2018. Genotypes significantly differed (P≤0.05) in Fe, Zn, cooking time, canning quality and yield. Iron and Zn varied highly, ranging between 44-118 and 25-50 ppm, respectively, across the five-genotype groups. Cooking time ranged from 29-118 minutes and majority of the genotypes expressed good to excellent canning quality based on visual assessment (4-5) and hydration coefficients (2.1-2.2). Mean yields for bush beans and climbers were 1674-1977 kg ha-1 and 2204-3160 kg ha-1, respectively. The most outstanding genotypes that combined above average yield with high Fe/Zn were CMKN1109 (96/ 43 ppm), SMR103 (92/ 43 ppm), SMC12 (90/ 43 ppm), and NUS16 (91/ 48 ppm). In addition, NUA127 (84/ 42 ppm), SMR53 (84/ 42 ppm), SMC160 (84/ 43 ppm) and NUA595 (83/ 42 ppm) yielded above average and expressed high canning quality. The genotypes that combined high Fe/ Zn, canning quality, and yield are potential genotypes for further improvement or evaluation for possible release.
  • Characteristics of agricultural entrepreneurs and their agribusinesses in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Benin

    Thoto , FS; Kpenavoun Chogou , S; Honfoga , BG; Houessou, MD (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Entrepreneurship in the sub-Saharan African agricultural sector has been growing in recent years because of increasing unemployment and underemployment. In Benin, policies and programs are encouraging individuals to start their own agribusinesses. To further sharpen these policies and programs to improve agricultural entrepreneurship's contribution to the economy, it is essential to avail information on the entrepreneurs, their businesses, and the typologies of agribusinesses. Such information is limited, which reduces the ability to develop evidence-informed policies and programs. This research aims to fill the gaps by describing the features of agricultural entrepreneurs in Benin. A random sample of 819 agricultural entrepreneurs was used, and data were collected on entrepreneurs and their businesses. Descriptive analysis and hierarchical clustering of principal components were performed. The study found that women’s participation in agricultural entrepreneurship in terms of new business formation is still low. Also, the agricultural entrepreneurs are more driven by necessity than opportunity, although they have a highly positive personality, mainly in terms of optimism and risk. At the enterprise level, most agribusinesses have been in operation for more than three years, but only one out of ten entrepreneurs felt that their business was at a mature phase. The research also evidenced that informality in the agribusiness sector is high because almost half of the agribusinesses were not registered with any formal governmental entity, and only three out of ten complied with tax regulations. Agricultural entrepreneurs were active in knowledge networks to expand their activities and improve their performance. Three categories of agribusiness were defined with the cluster analysis: ‘informal agribusinesses’ essentially built for profit, not registered, and owned by not highly educated adult entrepreneurs; ‘professional new agribusinesses’ were mainly operated by young entrepreneurs with a university education and agricultural professional training; and ‘mature agribusinesses’ were mostly formally registered and owned by highly educated entrepreneurs. This research will be instrumental for policymakers and practitioners to better understand agricultural entrepreneurship and improve its economic outcomes. It provides a strong evidence base to support the ongoing motivation of policymakers to provide solutions to unemployment and underemployment through agricultural entrepreneurship.
  • Soy dairy performance metrics

    Krause, J.; Cornelius , M.; Goldsmith, P.; Mzungu, M.; Kambani-Banda , C.; Tamimie, C. (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.) has been a crop of interest to address both poverty and malnutrition in the developing world because of its high levels of  both protein and oil, and its adaptability to grow in tropical environments. Development practitioners and policymakers have long sought value added  opportunities for local crops to move communities out of poverty by introducing processing or manufacturing technologies. Soy dairy production  technologies sit within this development conceptual model. To the researchers’ knowledge, no research to date measures soy dairy performance, though  donors and NGOs have launched hundreds of enterprises over the last 18 years. The lack of firm-level data on operations limits the ability of donors and  practitioners to fund and site sustainable dairy businesses. Therefore, the research team developed and implemented a recordkeeping system and  training program first, as a 14-month beta test with a network of five dairies in Ghana and Mozambique in 2016-2017. Learning from the initial research  then supported a formal research rollout over 18 months with a network of six different dairies in Malawi and key collaboration from USAID’s Agricultural  Diversification activity. None of the beta or rollout dairies kept records prior to the intervention. The formal rollout resulted in a unique primary dataset to  address the soy dairy performance knowledge gap. The results of analysis show that the dairies, on average, achieve positive operating margins of  61%, yet cannot cover the fixed costs associated with depreciation, amortization of equipment and infrastructure, working capital, marketing and  promotion, and regulatory compliance. The enterprises in our sample operate only at 9% of capacity, which limits their ability to cover the normal fixed  costs associated with the business. The challenge is not the technology itself, as when operated, it produces a high-quality dairy product. The challenges  involve a business that requires too much capital for normal operations relative to a nascent and small addressable market.  
  • Community knowledge and awareness of aflatoxin in dietary staples in rural Busia County, Kenya: A mixed methods study

    Aflatoxins are an important food safety challenge globally and in Kenya. Understanding a community’s knowledge, perception and practices is instrumental to improvement of aflatoxin control measures. Creating awareness on the causes of contamination and mitigation options could improve aflatoxin mitigation. This study aimed to map out dietary staples, establish drivers of food choices, describe knowledge and perceptions on aflatoxin and post-harvest grain management practices and use among the communities in Busia County in order to guide future evidence-based aflatoxin prevention and public health interventions. A household survey was conducted in 40 villages, and participants were selected using stratified systematic sampling in three sub-counties in rural Busia County. The survey was complemented and triangulated with a qualitative study component. Focus Group Discussions with sixty women and sixteen semi- structured interviews with nine men and seven women were conducted. Both descriptive and statistical analysis of data were performed. The results showed variability in household diversity scores and maize was observed as the community staple. While both younger and older participants were able to identify spoilt grains, they demonstrated limited knowledge and awareness of aflatoxin. Participants were not aware that seemingly clean grains could be colonized by aflatoxin as they only associated spoilage with discoloration and bitter taste of flour. Study participants were also not aware of the aflatoxin pathways to exposure as they used the spoilt grains in feeding chicken, making animal feed and local brew. Appropriate disposal methods of aflatoxin contaminated food were not known. The knowledge gap was attributed to lack of awareness creation and sensitization by the relevant government ministries. For effective control and prevention of aflatoxin contamination, farmers and traders need to be aware of the causes of aflatoxin contamination of grains, available mitigation options and health risks attributable to aflatoxin exposure in order to self-regulate. Ministries of health and agriculture, through their public health officers, community health workers and agricultural extension officers respectively need to collaborate and spearhead awareness creation among communities and institute food surveillance systems in Busia County.
  • Seasonal variability in food and nutrition security among children 0-3 years in Karamoja sub-region of Uganda

    Muggaga , C; Ongeng , D; Mugonola , B; Okello-Uma, I; Kaaya , NA; Taylor, D (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Optimal nutrition and good feeding of infants and young children are among the most important determinants of their health, growth and development. Due to unimodal climate in Karamoja sub-region, north eastern Uganda, achieving food security remains a development challenge in the area impacting negatively on the nutrition and health status of infants and young children. The current study, therefore, is important in providing the basis for season-based interventions to improve food and nutrition security in Karamoja sub-region. A longitudinal study involving 267 lactating mothers during harvesting season and 380 during planting season was conducted. Data were collected using Individual level Dietary Diversity questionnaire, 24-Hour Dietary Recall, and Anthropometry and were analyzed statistically. The findings indicated that except Abim district, 77.8-97.8%of the lactating mothers never attended school; 75- 100% depend on subsistence farming. Lactating mothers (29.9-41.9%) introduced complementary foods to their infants at 6 months, while the age at first introduction of any food to the infant was mostly between 4-6 months. Dietary quality of complementary foods was low across all the districts; 6.7-38.9% of the children ate foods from four or more of the seven food groups in the previous day (Minimum Dietary Diversity) in both seasons. Complementary foods were characterized by plant food sources. With exception of milk and milk products, proportion of children who consumed animal-sourced foods was low, ranging from 0% in meats to 8.9% in fish and sea foods. Energy and nutrient intakes varied according to age groups of the children across districts and season. The proportion of children below -2 Z-score also varied according to districts and it is generally higher during the planting season than the harvesting season. The median of the z-scores for height-for age and Mid Upper Arm Circumference for age ranged from -1 to -2.5. In conclusion, there were variations and disparities in dietary diversity, energy and nutrient intake as well as nutrition status of infants and young children across season and districts in Karamoja sub-region of Uganda. Therefore, interventions to combat malnutrition among children 0-3 years need to take into account seasonal variations for each of the geographical locations in Karamoja sub-region.
  • Quality evaluation of powdered Ogi produced from maize sorghum and soybean flour blends in Nigeria

    Omah , E.C.; Nwaudah , E.I.; Asogwa, I.S.; Eze, C.R. (AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT), 2023-04-28)
    Ogi is a fermented cereal porridge usually made from single cereals such as maize (Zea mays). In traditional production, it is sometimes combined with other cereals such as sorghum or millet. It is usually in semi-solid form after production and has low shelf stability. This study was carried out to produce  and evaluate the quality of ogi powder from mixtures of selected cereals (maize and sorghum), with soybean inclusion as advancement for improving the  nutritive value of the product. Ogi flour was obtained from grains of maize and sorghum by weighing, sorting, soaking (for 72 hours), wet milling, sieving,  dewatering, oven-drying, pulverizing and sieving through muslin cloth with maximum pore size of 20 mm. Optimal blend (70:30) for maize - sorghum ogi cumulating to 100% maize - sorghum mixture was obtained from a preliminary study; and fortified with soybean in the ratios of 90:10,  80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 100:0. The samples were analyzed for functional, proximate and micronutrient properties using standard methods. Results  of water absorption and swelling capacity showed significant (p<0.05) differences among the samples. Proximate composition results showed  significant (p<0.05) differences in all samples and ranged as follows: moisture (5.39 - 7.72%), protein (6.22 - 21. 46%), ash (2.66 - 3.64%), crude fibre (2.22 -  2.65%), crude fat (4.22 - 10.22%) and carbohydrate (51.31 - 79.14%). The micronutrient levels were improved and ranged from 166 - 360 mg/100g calcium,  1.15 - 3.22 mg/100g iron, 24.3 - 47.6 IU ß-carotene and 0.59 - 0.89 mg/100g thiamine. Soybean addition generally improved the quality of the samples.  Protein increase was observed from 20% inclusion of soybean. The maximum inclusion level of 50% increased the protein content of the sample to 21.5%.  Despite adding value and variety to ogi meal due to its powdered form, fortifying maize-sorghum ogi with soybean would reduce the problem of  malnutrition especially among children who are usually fed ogi as infant formulae in developing countries.  

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