Oniang’o, Ruth K.; Professor of Food Science and Nutrition, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology and Member of Poverty Eradication Commission, P.O. Box 29086, Nairobi, Kenya. (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2001-01-01)
      Although Agriculture is the mainstay of Kenya's Economy, it is one the poorest in terms of performance as compared to other sectors. Negligence by the government in budgeting is no doubt one of the contributing factors among poverty, which is the underlying cause of hunger and malnutrition and redundancy of this sector. Use of systems approach to address agriculture, getting men into agriculture, deliberate placement of agro industries in rural areas, revamping extension and linking it to research, and development of infrastructure are some of the strategies that have been suggested in order that people's nutritional status may be enhanced. It is not one factor that will lead to good nutrition but a collection of factors well integrated and advocated by the majority. (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2001 1 (1): 43-50)

      Allotey, Joseph; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana; Simpanya, M. F.; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana; Mpuchane, Sisai; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2001-01-01)
      Maize flour treated with or without Tribolium castaneum was investigated for the presence of some fungi. Fusarium moniliforme had the highest occurrence of 36.7%, 28.1% and 33.3% while Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus had a frequency of 3.2%, 3.1% and 3% on primary isolation media of czapek dox agar (CDA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) respectively, in maize flour without T. castaneum. The frequency of F. moniliforme reduced in maize flour with T. castaneum to 11.1%, 12.1% and 18.8% on CDA, PDA and SDA while A. flavus/parasiticus increased in occurrence after introducing T. castaneum to 22.2%, 18.2% and 12.3% on the three respective media. Fourteen and 7 fungal genera were isolated from maize flour with and without F. castaneum respectively. Two fungal species isolated from maize flour without T. castaneum were Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. lunata. Ten species isolated from maize flour with T. castaneum were A. pullulans, Auxarthron spp., C. herbarum, Eurotium sp., Phoma glomerata, Neosauorya spp., Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer and Wallemia sebi. These results suggest an association and a synergistic interaction between important spoilage and mycotoxigenic fungi with T. castaneum such as A. flavus/parasiticus and some mildly parasitic fungal colonies but an antagonistic interaction with F. moniliforme. Key words: Tribolium castaneum, storage fungi, synergistic/antagonistic interactions, mycotoxins (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2001 1(1): 3-8)

      Babu, Suresh C.; Senior Research Fellow and Senior Training Advisor, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033, K Street, NW, Washington DC 20006, USA (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2001-01-01)
      In spite of the continued efforts of nutritionists to address nutrition problems in sub-Saharan Africa, the levels of undernutrition remain high. This paper is an attempt to provide an overview of the challenges that face nutrition planners and policymakers in implementing and evaluating nutrition policies and program interventions. Presenting a conceptual framework for analyzing the causes of nutritional outcomes, it reviews past experiences in implementing various nutrition policies and program interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying capacity gaps for designing nutrition policies and programs, it outlines strategies for increasing the nutrition policy capacity in Africa. It is argued that unless the profile of nutritionists is elevated through appropriate capacity strengthening, their role in influencing nutrition policies and programs and hence nutritional outcomes will remain low in Africa. (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2001 1 (1):19-28)

      Per Pinstrup-Andersen; Director-General, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2033 K Street, N.W. Washington DC, 20006, USA.; Julie Babinard; Senior Research Assistant, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2033 K Street, N.W. Washington DC, 20006, USA. (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2001-01-01)
      Globalization is here to stay. Those of us concerned about nutrition among low-income families should focus on how globalization can be guided for their benefit. This chapter provides a conceptual framework for assessing the linkages between globalization and nutrition, and suggests action to be taken by governments and civil society. Policy changes are needed in developing countries to give poor people access to productive resources and markets, and to assure that the poor are not marginalized in the globalization process. Policies are also needed to guide domestic markets for imported foods. Industrialized countries must open their markets for developing-country goods and services (including agricultural commodities and processed foods) and remove unfair trade practices. Globalization can help or hurt the poor and malnourished. Accompanying policies will help determine which it will be. (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2001 1(1): 9-18)

      W Oldewage-Theron; Lecturer and Head of Department, Department of Hospitality and Food Consumer Science, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa; R. Oniang’o; Professor of Food Science and Nutrition, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya.; H. H. Vorster; Professor and Director of Research, Department of Nutrition, Potchefstoom University of Christian Higher Education, South Africa.; R. Rutengwe; Master's Student, Vaal Triangle Tecknikon, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Hospitality and Food Consumer Science, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2001-01-01)
      Adequate nutrition is a basic human right, but globally it remains unmet for many pre-school children. Poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition continue to be obstacles to human rights, quality of life and dignity. The 1995 goal to eradicate poverty in the world by 2020 is not on target in developing countries; rather, poverty has been increasing. Over 800 million people suffer from malnutrition in developing countries and over 20 % of the populations are hungry. About one third of the world's population suffer from micronutrient deficiencies and hundreds of millions suffer from chronic diseases of lifestyle. Prevalence rates, particularly low birth weight, stunting and underweight, remain high particularly in Eastern Africa and South Central Asia. More than a third of all children in developing countries remain constrained in their physical growth and cognitive development. The 1990 ambitious goal of halving childhood underweight prevalence by the year 2000 has not been achieved by most countries. Global progress in fighting malnutrition is slow and crippled by rapid increase of both communicable and non-communicable diseases, the so-called “double burden of disease”. About 115 million people suffered from obesity related diseases in the year 2000. Overweight and obesity (globesity) prevalence is advancing rapidly in developing countries. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and stroke as one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity globally, will continue to be first and second leading causes of death in the world. Most developing countries, including South Africa, currently are in the process of transition and experiencing the double burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in which chronic diseases of lifestyle such as CVD have emerged while the battle against infectious diseases has not been won. In the last few years the HIV/AIDS epidemic has spread extremely rapidly and is likely to double overall mortality rates, undermine child survival and halve the life expectancy over the next five years. The co-existence of over- and under-nutrition calls for urgent innovative strategies and interventions to tackle the problem. The importance of prevention as the most sensible strategy is emphasised. This overview emphasises that, in planning nutrition strategies and interventions in low income, high-burden countries such as South Africa risk factors for both over- and under-nutrition and related diseases should be targeted and addressed. Keywords: over- and under-nutrition, double burden of disease and developing countries. (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2001 1 (1): 34-42)

      Mathooko, Francis M.; Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya; Kiniiya, Elizabeth N.; Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2002-01-01)
      The effects of two levels each of sodium metabisulfite and sodium benzoate on the shelf-life of canned lime juice stored at ambient temperature was based on ascorbic acid degradation as an index. Sodium metabisulfite increased the shelf-life significantly (P

      Oldewage-Theron, W. H.; Corresponding : Head of Food Department, Vaal Triangle Technikon, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa.; Dicks, E.; Lecturer - Food Department, Vaal Triangle Technikon.; Selepe, M.; Lecturer - Nutrition Department, Vaal Triangle Technikon. (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2002-01-01)
      This study formed part of a larger project in which food and beverage fortification as a way to address specific micronutrient deficiencies was evaluated in selected subjects in the Vaal Triangle. The objective of this study was to examine the suitability of the habit of tea drinking as a vehicle for fortification. This was achieved through a survey which sought information about the amount of tea consumed, the type of tea mostly consumed, additions to the tea, when tea is consumed, the reasons for tea consumption and preference for tea or other beverages. The study was conducted in a randomly selected sample of 500 male and female Africans, aged 13 to 25 years in the Vaal Triangle, South Africa. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods were used simultaneously and sequentially to collect data. Questionnaires were designed in which open questions addressing the objectives of the research were validated and sent out to collect the information. The results showed that most respondents (92.9 %) consumed at least one cup of tea daily, with rooibos tea selected as the most popular in this study (50 % of tea consumed). Sugar (40.4 %) and milk (37.0 %) are added most often to the tea. Respondents indicated that the preferred times for tea consumption are at breakfast, early morning and evening. According to the preference scales of these respondents, tea was the third most consumed beverage in summer and the first most consumed beverage in winter. Key words: fortification, micronutrient deficiencies, tea consumption. Résumé LES MODELES DE CONSOMMATION DE THE DE 13-25 ANNEE VIEILLE DANS LE TRIANGLE DE VAAL, SA Cette étude formé d'un grand projet dans lequel nourriture et comme une façon adresser spécifique micronutrient a été évalué dans choisi sujets dans le Vaal . L'objectif de cette étude était d'examiner le suitability de l'habitude de boire de thé comme un véhicule pour fortification. Ceci a été atteint par une étude qui a cherché information de la quantité de thé consommé, le type de thé surtout , additions au thé, quand thé est consommé, les raisons pour thé et préférence pour thé ou autre boissons. {The study was conducted in a randomly selected sample of 500 male and female Africans, aged 13 to 25 years old in the Vaal Triangle, South Africa. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods were used simultaneously and sequentially to collect data. Questionnaires were designed in which open questions addressing the objectives of the research were validated and sent out to collect the information.} Les résultats ont montré que la plupart des répondants (92.9 %) a consommé au moins une tasse de thé quotidien, avec le thé de rooibos a choisi comme le plus populaire dans cette étude (50 % de thé a consommé). Le sucre (40.4 %) et le lait (37.0 %) sont ajouté le plus souvent au thé. Répondants a indiqué que le préféré temps pour thé sont à petit déjeuner, premier matin et soir. Selon la préférence de ces répondants, thé était le tiers plus consommé dans été et le premièrement dans hiver. Le mots principal: fortification, les déficiences de micronutrient, la consommation de thé. (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2 (1): 38-45)
    • A New Agrarian Policy in Germany and its Consequences for the South

      Buntzel-Cano, Rudolf (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2002-01-01)
      (Af. J. of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development: 2002 2(1): 30-32)

      Siri Damman; Research Fellow, Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, former assistant course coordinator; Unni Silkoset; Assistant Lecturer, Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, assistant course coordinator; Wenche B. Eide; Associate Professor, Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, overall course coordinator; Elisabet Helsing; Senior Advisor, Norwegian Board of Health, Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; Arne Oshaug; Associate Professor, Akerhus University College, Bekkestua, Norway (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2002-01-01)
      This paper reports on some recent educational innovations on the training in public Nutrition at the University of Oslo, in the form of three independent but mutually supportive graduate/postgraduate elective courses: Global Nutrition, Nutrition and Governance, and, Nutrition and Human Rights. These courses are offered internationally in English by the Institute for Nutrition Research, School of Nutrition, Formally Known as the Nordic School of Nutrition. The main aim of the courses is to have more Universities training programs take up the critical contemporary trends that may increasingly have an impact on the food and nutrition situation globally, manifested in different ways according to circumstances. Global Nutrition is a five-credit course, corresponding to 15 ECTS (European Credit Transfer System). The course stresses the importance of applying both a historical perspective and a system approach in discussing current and changing manifestations and interpretation of "the nutrition problem." This will help students understand the shifting priorities for research and action that take place over time. Nutrition and Governance combines aspects of nutrition policy formulation, nutrition programming, and assessment of nutritional impact of broader development initiatives. The students also get an understanding of the "micro-governance" exerted by various institutions that work with food and nutrition problems. The Nutrition and Human Rights course brings a new notion of formalized and legally based ethics and morale and thus hope. The understanding is conveyed, given time, the existing and evolving norms, mechanisms and how procedures of the international human rights systems may gradually become internalized. This can occur through the growing number of democratic governments, most of which would have ratified the relevant international conventions establishing food, health and good nutrition as human rights. A new challenge in the public nutrition community is the linkage between globalization and human development, nutrition and human rights, without going deeper into them. Further studies of such linkages in specific country situations are urgently needed and call for academic and professional openness towards interdisciplinary dialogue, research and implementation. Thus there is indeed progress in nutrition thinking within a global perspective. The potential role and contributions of African nutritionists in accelerating this progress is promising and encouraged. Key words: Training, Emerging issues, Role of African Nutritionists and institutions, Food and Nutrition rights. Note: An earlier version of this paper was presented at the IUNS Satellite meeting "Progress in Public Nutrition", 24-26 August, 2001, 17th IUNS Congress on Nutrition, Vienna, Austria (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2 (1): 46-55)

      Arne Oshaug; Associate Professor, Centre for Research on Health, Society and Environment, Akershus University College, Ringstabekkveien 105, N-1356 Bekkestua, Norway (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2002-01-01)
      What can be called `modern' food aid has changed considerably in the 1990's. It has strong political, agricultural, economic and trade features. Two publications[1,2], have assessed the nature of food aid, indicated future challenges and possible role, and provided recommendations for food aid policy measures. Also highlighted is the chain of events in the last 15-20 years, pointing to the transformation of the international system as a result of political events at national and global level are addressed. Issues discussed are for example food aid in relation to human insecurity and humanitarian crisis, poverty, need for institutional reform, World Trade Organization (WTO) and mounting globalization, World Food Program, Food Aid Convention, humanitarian law, human rights and codes of conduct with emphasis on humanitarian assistance. Food aid as a development tool is questioned, and what will happen when food aid is drying out. The books provide a comprehensive analysis and are highly recommended. Key words: Food aid; human security; globalization; human rights, humanitarian law. Résumé LA FACE qui CHANGE D'AIDE DE NOURRITURE Que peut être appelé `moderne' l'aide de nourriture a changé considérablement dans le 1990's. Il a fort politique, agricole, économique et commerce . Deux publications[1,2], a évalué la nature de nourriture , indiqué avenir et possible , et fourni pour nourriture aide règle d'action . Aussi chaîne d'événements dans le dernier 15-20 années, indiquer à la transformation de l'international système par suite de politique événements à national et global niveau sont adressé. Distribue discuté sont par exemple par rapport à humain insécurité et humanitaire crise, pauvreté, besoin pour institutionnel réforme, (WTO) et montant globalization, , Nourriture Aide , humanitaire loi, humain droits et codes de conduite avec accent sur humanitaire assistance. L'aide de nourriture comme un outil de développement est questionné, et que qu'arrivera quand l'aide de nourriture sèche hors. Les livres fournissent une analyse compréhensive et sont extrêmement recommandés. Le mots principal: l'aide de Nourriture; la sécurité humaine; globalization; les droits humains, la loi humanitaire. (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2 (1): 60-66)

      Michael Abu Foster; Country Director, Sasakawa Global 2000, P.O. Box 6987, Kampala, Uganda; Abel Lufafa; Lecturer, Soil Science Department, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2002-01-01)
      The Green revolution provided humanity a tool to ameliorate the impact of impending global hunger and poverty for a brief period. Inequities in the distribution of the green revolution's benefits reflected intrinsic and widening disparities between people of the world at global, national, community and family level, and also even by gender. Current population trends are contributing to a growing escalation in global poverty and hunger that threaten to wipe out the current global food surplus. In sub-Saharan Africa, the depth of poverty and hunger is already great and environmental degradation is further reducing the productive resource capacity. A new vision of humanity's welfare is that our common future demands a second green revolution that will redress inequities in distribution of the benefits of agricultural intensification in favor of the rural poor. Furthermore, future gains in food security should not be achieved at the expense of environmental conservation. A third and more difficult challenge for future advances in agricultural innovation is that it must also encompass much broader objectives for rural development and address the full scope of rural livelihood opportunities provided by increased urban migration. Measures needed to ensure future food security demand clear, effective and synchronized strategies for an accelerated intensification of agriculture and hence economic growth. This will require a climate of greater political stability and fundamental social change. Such strategies must target poverty as a root cause of hunger and low development of rural economies. Above all such strategies must create the necessary framework for broader application of productivity-enhancing technologies as the engines for sustainable economic growth. Greater progress and efficiency can be achieved through more appropriate institutional approaches that permit greater flexibility and collaboration between existing institutions. Alternatively, new institutions that provide a shift in the focus for development can be created. However, such institutions must also permit a broader and well-synchronized approach that generates strong synergies between countries and existing institutions. Key words: Food Security, Agricultural Intensification and Green Revolution. Résumé Intensification agricole: Nourrir nous et l'Afrique qui soutient'les ressources de terre de s dans le nouveau millénaire Le Vert révolution a fourni humanité un outil améliorer l'impact d'imminent global faim et pauvreté pour un bref période. Inequities dans la distribution du vert révolution's profite reflété intrinsèque et élargissant disparités entre gens du monde à global, national, , et aussi par gender. Actuel population contribuent à un croissant escalade dans global pauvreté et faim qui menace éliminer l'actuel global nourriture . Dans sous-Saharan , la profondeur de pauvreté et faim est déjà et écologique degradation également réduit le productif ressource . Un nouveau vision d'humanité's est que notre commun avenir exige un deuxième vert révolution qui corrigera inequities dans distribution des profits d'agricole intensification partisan du rural pauvre. De plus, les gains d'avenir dans la sécurité de nourriture ne devraient pas être atteints aux frais de la conservation écologique. Un tiers et plus défi pour avenir dans agricole innovation est qu'il aussi doit entourer beaucoup objectifs pour rural développement et adresse le plein étendue de rural gagne-pain fourni par augmenté urbain migration. Mesures a eu besoin d'assurer avenir nourriture sécurité clair, efficace et synchronisé stratégies pour un accéléré intensification d'agriculture et par conséquent croissance. Ceci exigera un climat de plus grand politique stabilité et fondamental social changement. Telles stratégies doit cible comme une racine de faim et bas de rural . Par-dessus tout telles stratégies doit créer le nécessaire structure pour large application de productivité embellissement technologies comme les moteurs pour viable économique croissance. Plus grand progrès et efficacité peut être atteint par plus institutionnel approches qui permet plus grand flexibilité et collaboration entre existant institutions. Comme alternative, les nouvelles institutions qui fournissent un changement dans le focus pour le développement peuvent être créées. Cependant, telles institutions aussi doit permettre un large et bien-synchronisé approche qu'engendre fort synergies entre pays et existant institutions. Principal : Nourriture , Agricole , et Vert . (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2(1): 5-21)

      Sifri, Zeina; Hellen Keller International Division of Hellen Keller Worldwide,352 Park Avenue South, Suite 1200, New York, NY 10010; Darnton-Hill, I.; Hellen Keller International Division of Hellen Keller Worldwide,352 Park Avenue South, Suite 1200, New York, NY 10010; Baker, S. K.; Helen Keller International, Regional Office for Africa, Avenue Noges, Plateau, abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire; Bendech, M. Ag; Helen Keller International, Regional Office for Africa, Avenue Noges, Plateau, abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire; Baker, S. K.; Helen Keller International, Regional Office for Africa, Avenue Noges, Plateau, abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire; Aguayo, V. M.; Helen Keller International, Regional Office for Africa, Avenue Noges, Plateau, abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire; Bendech, M. Ag; Helen Keller International, Regional Office for Africa, Avenue Noges, Plateau, abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2002-02-01)
      Despite some encouraging progress, micronutrient malnutrition remains a public health problem affecting all countries in Africa. Estimates show that over 85 million people living on the African continent are iodine deficient. A further 180 million are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. With iodized salt reaching about 70% of African households, these figures are presumably lower. Anemia is a major public health problem in Africa, affecting over 80% of women, infants and young children. Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in 64 countries. With a focus on the prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies, supplementation with vitamin A capsules has been successfully integrated into the National Immunization Days in 43 of 64 vitamin A-deficient countries. Iron/folate supplementation of pregnant women is government policy in virtually all countries but has had very limited success. Multimicronutrient supplementation is another approach that is being explored. Food-based approaches such as dietary diversification are both sustainable and culturally well-accepted in the African context. Many countries in Africa are progressing with food fortification efforts including wheat flour fortification with iron in Zimbabwe and vitamin A fortification of sugar in Zambia. Ongoing complementary public health measures include breastfeeding, immunization, control of infectious diseases and poverty alleviation policies. Many existing challenges devalue the potential impact of nutrition programs on development and national progress. There exists however, a wealth of innovative promising experiences in Africa such as national micronutrient days and hammermill fortification. The major initiatives currently addressing malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and infectious diseases will also contribute. Key words: micronutrient malnutrition, vitamin A, iron, iron deficiency anemia, Africa Rsum UNE VUE GLOBALE CONCISE DES INSUFFISANCES EN MICRONUTRIMENTS EN AFRIQUE ET ORIENTATIONS FUTURES RÉSUMÉ Malgré quelques progrès encourageants, la malnutrition en matière de micro-nutriments demeure un problème de santé publique qui affecte tous les pays en Afrique. Les estimations montrent que plus de 85 millions de personnes vivant sur le continent africain ont des insuffisances d iode et que 180 millions d autres sont menacés d avoir des perturbations causées par l insuffisance d iode. Etant donné que le sel iodé atteint près de 70% de ménagers Africains, ces chiffres sont sans doute inférieurs à la réalité. L anémie est un problème majeur de santé publique en Afrique ; elle affecte plus de 80% de femmes, de nourrissons et de petits enfants. L insuffisance en Vitamine A est un problème de santé publique dans 64 pays. L accent étant mis sur la prévention et la réduction des insuffisances en micro-nutriments, le supplément par des capsules de vitamine A a été efficacement intégré dans les Journées Nationales d Immunisation dans 43 sur 64 pays accusant une insuffisance en vitamine A. Un supplément de fer/folate chez les femmes enceintes est une politique gouvernementale dans pratiquement tous les pays, mais il a eu un succès très limité. Le supplément de multimicronutriments est une autre approche qui est explorée actuellement. Des approches basées sur les aliments, telles que la diversification du régime alimentaire, sont viables et culturellement bien acceptées dans le contexte africain. Plusieurs pays d Afrique progressent avec des efforts de fortification alimentaire, comme la fortification de la farine de blé avec du fer au Zimbabwe et la fortification de la vitamine A avec du sucre en Zambie. Les mesures en cours qui sont complémentaires de la santé publique sont notamment l allaitement, l immunisation, la lutte contre les maladies infectieuses et les politiques d allègement de la pauvreté. Beaucoup de défis actuels dévaluent l impact éventuel des programmes de nutrition sur le développement et le progrès national. Il existe, cependant, une richesse d expériences novatrices prometteuses en Afrique, telles que les journées nationales des micro-nutriments et la fortification de hammermill. Les initiatives majeures de lutte contre la malaria, la tuberculose, les maladies infectieuses connexes du VIH/SIDA apporteront également des contributions. Mots clés: malnutrition par manque de micro-nutriments, vitamine A, le fer, l anémie causée par l insuffisance du fer, Afrique. (Af. J. Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2 (2): 78-85)

      Aguayo, Victor M.; Conseiller Regional en Nutrition et Survie de l'Enfant pour l'Afrique, Helen Keller International (HKI); Adou, Pierre; Directeur-Coordonnateur du Programme National de Nutrition. Ministere de la Sante. Cote d'Ivoire (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2002-02-01)
      This analysis reviews some of the main nutrition problems in Côte d Ivoire and their consequences for three key sectors to national development: health, education, and the economy. The analysis shows that in the absence of adequate policy action, the current monetary value of the productivity losses attributable to malnutrition cases happening between 2001 and 2005 amount to about $ 545 million. To these significant economic losses need to be added 101,500 child lives lost because of underweight; 50,300 child lives lost because of vitamin A deficiency; and 170,600 newborns with mental retardation because of intra-uterine iodine deficiency. On the contrary, if over the same period of time (2001-2005) Côte d Ivoire reduced (1) the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition in children by one-third; (2) the prevalence of anemia in women of reproductive age by one-third; (3) the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children by half; and (4) the prevalence of iodine deficiency in the population by half, the current value of productivity gains resulting from such nutrition improvement would amount to $ 96 million. To such economic gains need to be added 16,600 child lives saved as a result of the reduction in underweight levels; 11,000 child lives saved as a result of the reduction in vitamin A deficiency; and 42,000 newborns saved from mental retardation as a result of the reduction in iodine deficiency. Policy action needs to be taken urgently to ensure the necessary resources to control malnutrition in Côte d Ivoire. Key Words: Nutrition, Côte d Ivoire, Development, advocacy Rsum Cette analyse passe en revue les principaux problèmes nutritionnels en Côte d Ivoire et certaines de leurs conséquences sur trois secteurs clés du développement: la santé, l éducation et l économie. L analyse révèle que faute d interventions appropriées, la valeur actuelle de la productivité perdue à cause de la malnutrition se produisant entre 2001 et 2005 s élèverait à 545 million de dollars américains. A cette perte économique s ajouteraient 101.500 vies d enfants perdues suite au déficit pondéral pour l age; 50.300 vies d enfants perdues suite à la carence en vitamine A; et 170.600 nouveau-nés souffrant de retard mental à cause de la carence en iode durant la vie f tale. Si entre 2001 et 2005 la Côte d Ivoire s engageait à (1) réduire d un tiers la prévalence la malnutrition protéino-énergétique chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans, (2) réduire d un tiers la prévalence de l anémie chez les femmes en âge de procréer, (3) réduire de moitié la prévalence de la carence en vitamine A chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans et (4) réduire de moitié la prévalence de la carence en iode dans la population, la valeur actuelle de la productivité gagnée suite à l atteinte de ces objectifs s élèverait à 96 millions de dollars américains. A ce gain économique il faudrait ajouter 16.600 vies d enfants sauvées suite à la réduction de la prévalence du déficit pondéral pour l age; 11.000 vies d enfants sauvées suite à l élimination de la carence en vitamine A; et 42.500 nouveau-nés sauvés du retard mental suite à la réduction de la carence en iode. Assurer les ressources nécessaires pour la lutte contre la malnutrition en Côte d Ivoire devient une urgence nationale. Mots cles: Nutrition, Côte d Ivoire, Développement, plaidoyer (Af. J. of Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2(2): 86-91)
    • Food Fortification to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency

      Funded in part by NRF of South Africa and CSC of China; Chen, Zhengxing; School of Food Science and Technology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Ro; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna; Department of Hospitality and Foode Consumer Science, Vaal Triangle Technikon, P (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2002-02-01)
      Iron deficiency anaemia, one of the most prevalent problems of micronutrient malnutrition, occurs in many developing countries. Causes of the problem are many, but one of the major causes is low bioavailability of food iron. An increase in the supply of absorbable iron-rich food in the diet should decrease the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia. One of the strategies to overcome the high prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in developing countries is to fortify food products with iron, with the goal of increasing the level of iron consumption resulting in improved nutritional status. Food fortification is the most cost effective, sustainable and optimal approach in the battle against iron deficiencies in developing countries. Iron fortification does not have the gastro-intestinal side effects that iron supplements often induce. Fortification iron can be divided into two main forms namely haem iron and non-haem iron. Non-haem iron is more often used for fortification purposes because of availability of and lower cost. Most iron-fortified foods contain potential absorption inhibitors, for example, phytates, polyphenols containing galloyl groups, oxalates and calcium. It is essential to prevent the fortification iron from reacting with the absorption inhibitors. To ensure adequate absorption therefore, various factors must be considered before initiating a fortification programme. These include cost effectiveness of fortification in increasing absorbable iron, palatability of the fortified food and the etiology of iron deficiency. It is thus important to carefully select the food vehicles to be fortified as well as the iron fortificants to be added. A successful iron fortification program depends heavily upon the absorption of the added iron and its protection from some absorptive inhibitors. This paper focuses on the latest technical advancement ruling the selection of food vehicles and iron fortification compounds with the aim of ensuring adequate absorption of fortified iron. The optimization of the iron fortification compounds with the highest potential absorption causing the least subsequent organoleptic problems in the food vehicles is first discussed, followed by a description of ways of protecting and enhancing the absorption of fortification iron, such as applications of acidifiers, haemoglobin, sodium iron ethylene diamine tetra-acetate and amino acid-chelated iron. Finally, the major foods that are used as iron fortification vehicles in South Africa are discussed. Key words: iron deficiency, anaemia, iron fortificants, food fortification, micronutrient deficiencies Rsum FORTIFICATION DES ALIMENTS POUR PREVENIR ET REDUIRE LES INSUFFISANCES DU FER RÉSUMÉ L anémie causée par l insuffisance du fer, l un des problèmes les plus fréquents de la malnutrition liée aux micro-nutriments, se produit dans beaucoup de pays en développement. Les causes de ce problème sont nombreuses, mais l une des causes majeures est le niveau bas de la disponibilité biologique du fer dans les aliments. Une augmentation dans l approvisionnement d aliments riches en fer absorbable dans le régime alimentaire devrait faire baisser la prévalence de l anémie causée par l insuffisance du fer. L une des stratégies visant à réduire la prévalence élevée de l anémie causée par l insuffisance du fer dans les pays en développement est de fortifier les produits alimentaires avec du fer, dans le but d augmenter le niveau de la consommation du fer et, de ce fait, l état nutritionnel sera amélioré. La fortification des aliments est l approche la plus rentable, viable et optimale dans la lutte contre l insuffisance du fer dans les pays en développement. La fortification du fer n a pas les effets secondaires gastro-intestinaux que les suppléments de fer provoquent souvent. La fortification du fer peut être divisée en deux grandes formes, à savoir le fer avec haem et le fer sans haem. Le fer sans haem est plus souvent utilisé dans le processus de fortification à cause de la disponibilité des ressources et du coût abordable. Comme la plupart des aliments fortifiés avec du fer contiennent des inhibiteurs possibles de l absorption, par exemple, la présence des phytates, des poly-phénols contenant des groupes de galloyl, les oxalates et le calcium affectent négativement la bio-disponibilité des fortifiants du fer sans haem, il est essentiel d empêcher au fer de fortification de réagir avec les inhibiteurs de l absorption en vue d assurer une absorption adéquate. De nombreux facteurs doivent être pris en considération avant d initier un programme de fortification. Ces facteurs sont notamment la rentabilité de la fortification en augmentant le fer absorbable, le goût agréable des aliments fortifiés et l étiologie de l insuffisance du fer. Il est donc important de sélectionner attentivement les véhicules alimentaires qu il faut fortifier ainsi que les fortifiants de fer qu il faut ajouter. Un programme efficace de fortification de fer dépend étroitement de l absorption du fer ajouté et de sa protection contre certains inhibiteurs de l absorption. Ce document est axé sur le progrès technique le plus récent qui oriente la sélection des véhicules alimentaires et les composés de la fortification du fer dans le but d assurer une absorption adéquate du fer fortifié. L optimisation des composés de la fortification du fer avec le degré le plus élevé d une éventuelle absorption qui cause le moins de problèmes organoleptiques ultérieurs dans les véhicules alimentaires est analysée en premier lieu, suivie d une description des moyens de protéger et d accroître l absorption du fer de fortification, tels que les applications d acidifiants, l hémoglobine, le Tétra-acétate de diamine d éthylène de fer et de sodium ainsi que le fer amino-acide-chélaté. Enfin, les principaux aliments qui sont utilisés comme véhicules de fortification du fer en Afrique du Sud sont passés en revue. Mots clés: insuffisance en fer, anémie, fortifiants du fer, fortification des aliments, insuffisances en micro-nutriments (Af. J. of Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2(2): 67-77)

      M Kern; Aventis Crop Science (in future:Bayer Crop Science), Industrial park Hochst, (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2002-02-01)
      In the first 30 years of the 3rd millennium, the global demand for food will double. In order to produce enough food and to ensure good harvests, farmers everywhere in the world need a reliable source of good-quality seed. Access to improved seeds, adapted to local conditions, will be the key to achieving sustained intensification of food production. Crop improvement by means of biotechnology has now become a reality. The globalisation of biotechnology is underway. Although the potential of biotechnology is now quite well known, and indeed was advocated in Agenda 21 as early as 1992, progress in the development, realization and utilization of genetically modified crops in many developing countries is far too slow. By reorganizing plant DNA resources, it will be possible to improve the carrying capacity of the Earth. Innovative and vigorous forms of public-private collaboration are required if the benefits of modern biotechnology are to be brought to all of the world's people; incentives are needed to encourage commercial research companies to share with the public sector more of their capacity for innovation. Making New Technologies Work for Human Development [1] will be a sustainable guideline for responsible people shaping our future, because: Mankind is at the Crossroads . Key words: food, transgenic plants, functional genomics, biotechnology strategy, scientific apartheid, technology transfer, private-public partnership. Rsum LA BIOTECHNOLOGIE VEGETALE: PERSPECTIVES D'AVENIR DES PAYS EN DEVELOPPEMENT ENTRE 2002 ET 2025 Au cours des 30 premires annes du 3me millnium, la demande mondiale en nourriture va doubler. Pour produire assez de denres alimentaires et assurer de bonnes rcoltes, partout dans le monde les agriculteurs ont besoin d'une source sre de semences de bonne qualit. L'accs des semences amliores, adaptes aux conditions locales, sera la cl pour atteindre une intensification soutenue de la production alimentaire. L'amlioration des denres alimentaires au moyen de la biotechnologie est devenue maintenant une ralit. La "mondialisation de la biotechnologie"; est en cours. Bien que le potentiel de la biotechnologie soit maintenant assez bien connu, car en effet il a fait l'objet de plaidoyer dans Programme 21 en 1992, le progrs dans l'laboration, la ralisation et l'utilisation des denres gntiquement modifies dans beaucoup de pays en dveloppement est beaucoup trop lent. En rorganisant les ressources vgtales d'ADN, il sera possible d'amliorer la capacit de la terre de les porter. Des formes novatrices et vigoureuses de la collaboration entre les secteurs public et priv sont indispensables afin que les avantages de la biotechnologie moderne soient la porte de toute la population du monde entier; les stimulants sont ncessaires pour encourager les entreprises de recherche commerciale partager davantage avec le secteur public leur capacit d'innovation. "Making New Technologies Work for Human Development" [1] (Mettre les Nouvelles Technologies au service du Dveloppement Humain) sera une directive viable pour des gens responsables qui faonnent notre avenir, parce que "l'humanit est au Carrefour". Mots cls: nourriture, plantes trans-gniques, gnomique fonctionnelle, stratgie de la biotechnologie, apartheid scientifique, transfert de la technologie, le partenariat entre les secteurs priv et public. (Af. J. of Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2(2): 39-46)

      J Purcell; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA; R Fraley; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA; R Fuchs; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA; E Sachs; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA; M Vincent; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA; R Horsch; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA; J Montgomery; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA; T Nickson; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA; G Barry; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA; H Glick; Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindberg Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2002-02-01)
      Plant biotechnology is safely bringing valuable new benefits to farmers around the world, including those in developing countries where the needs for food, nutrition and overall development may be greatest. >From the current base of experience, it is reasonable to expect even greater benefits in the future, provided that progress continues on three fronts: a pipeline of products with human and environmental benefits, implementation of science-based local and global regulations and regulatory capacity, and partnerships to ensure development and attention to the needs of resource-poor farmers. This paper reviews the current impacts of products developed with biotechnology, the regulatory systems that ensure safe use of these products, and gives examples of the technologies that will yield second and third generation products. Of particular importance, partnerships between the private sector and universities, government agencies and non-governmental organizations are tackling some of the most difficult problems in agriculture and nutrition in the developing world. Key words: plant biotechnology, regulation, development, impact, benefits, agriculture Résumé METTRE LA BIOTECHNOLOGIE VEGETALE AU SERVICE DE L'ALIMENTATION, DE LA NUTRITION ET DU DEVELOPPEMENT ARTICLE A REVISER La biotechnologie végétale présente en toute sécurité de nouveaux avantages inégalables aux agriculteurs du monde entier, y compris ceux des pays en développement où les besoins en matière de nourriture, de nutrition et de développement général pourraient être les plus importants. A partir de l'expérience actuelle, il est raisonnable de s'attendre même à de plus grands avantages à l'avenir, pourvu que le progrès continue sur trois fronts: une pipeline de produits qui présentent des avantages pour les hommes et pour l'environnement, la mise en oeuvre de règlements et capacités réglementaires aux niveaux local et mondial en se basant sur les sciences, ainsi que des partenariats en vue d'assurer le développement et l'attention par rapport aux besoins des agriculteurs munis de peu de ressources. Cet exposé évalue les impacts actuels des produits mis au point au moyen de la biotechnologie, des systèmes réglementaires qui garantissent l'utilisation sûre de ces produits ; il donne également des exemples des technologies dont les résultats seront des produits de deuxième et troisième générations. Etant d'une importance particulière, les partenariats entre le secteur privé et les universités, entre les agences gouvernementales et les organisations non-gouvernementales, s'embarquent actuellement sur certains problèmes des plus difficiles qui se posent en agriculture et en nutrition dans le monde en développement. Les mots clés : Biotechnologie végétale, Règlement, Développement, Impact, Avantages, Agriculture (Af. J. of Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2(2): 47-58)

      B Suresh; A Bhouraskar; International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2033 K Street, N. W. Wash (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2002-02-01)
      Famine continues to threaten the livelihoods of many sub-Saharan Africans. Presently, six countries of southern Africa: Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe, are threatened by famine due to low output in the staple crop maize. Policy lessons learned from studies conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) on famine mitigation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa can be instructive in developing measures to remove the threat. Famine mitigation must be seen in terms of three goals or phases: immediate relief, recovery and short-term development. This paper presents policy options for each of these phases, including food aid, labor-intensive employment programs, public-private partnerships, agricultural input transfers and institution building. Interventions must be combined and sequenced for an overall strategy to be effective. Certain broader goals, such as governance, are also essential to consider for long-term famine prevention and food security. The paper examines a range of issues: 1) the causes of famines, the time frame for various policy measures and the criteria for choosing interventions, (2) interventions for immediate relief, (3) measures to help affected households recover from famine, (4) the development of technological, policy and institutional foundations for stepping out of famine and attaining food security, (5) how interventions should be combined and sequenced, and (6) several overarching issues that should be considered for famine mitigation and prevention. (Af. J. of Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2(2): 22-30)
    • Quality and Safety Assessment of Foods Derived by Modern Biotechnologyand their International Regulations

      John R. Lupien (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2002-02-01)
      Biotechnology has a long history of use in food production and processing. It represents both traditional breeding techniques and the latest techniques based on molecular biology. The increasing development of genetically modified organisms is accompanied by the need for all-necessary controls related to their testing, relevance, use and cross-border movements. Adequate national legislation is necessary to protect the environment, biodiversity, and human health. There is also need to consider how to carry out adequate levels of risk management of genetically modified organisms in the products, mechanisms and instruments for application and control of biotechnology. This paper discusses the work done at the international level to assure the quality and safety of foods derived from modern biotechnology. It explores the code of conduct for biotechnology as it affects the conservation and use of plant genetic resources. Particular biotechnology-related issues have been considered by a series of FAO/WHO expert consultations and workshops. Emphasis is placed on generic work done at the United Nations level on the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity and the accompanying Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and more specific work on food and agriculture aspects carried out by the Food and Agriculture Organisation on the UN (FAO), often performed jointly with the World Health Organisation and The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The paper also gives a brief history and scope of the Codex Alimentarius Commission as regards biotechnology and food safety, and implementation of the Joint FAO/WHO food standards. Also explained are Codex Committees such as the Codex Committee on Food Labelling, and the Codex Committee on Food Certification and Inspection Systems, and the interrelationship between FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organisation and International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). Key words: biosafety, genetically modified organisms, food quality and food safety. Résumé La biotechnologie a une longue histoire par son utilisation dans la production et le traitement alimentaires. Elle représente aussi bien les techniques traditionnelles d'élevage que les techniques les plus récentes basées sur la biologie moléculaire. Le développement croissant d'organismes génétiquement modifiés s'accompagne du besoin de tous les contrôles nécessaires liés à leur test, leur pertinence, leur utilisation et leurs mouvements trans-frontières. Une législation nationale adéquate est nécessaire pour protéger l'environnement, la diversité biologique, et la santé humaine. Il faut également considérer comment mettre au point des niveaux adéquats de gestion des risques des organismes génétiquement modifiés dans les produits, des mécanismes et des instruments d'application et de contrôle de la biotechnologie. Ce document expose le travail fait au niveau international en vue d'assurer la qualité et la sécurité des aliments dérivés de la biotechnologie moderne. Il explore le code de conduite en matière de biotechnologie étant donné qu'elle affecte la conservation et l'utilisation des ressources génétiques végétales. Les questions particulières qui ont trait à la biotechnologie ont été considérées à travers une série de consultations et d'ateliers des experts de la FAO/OMS. Un accent particulier est mis sur le travail générique fait au niveau des Nations Unies dans le cadre de la Convention de 1992 sur la Diversité Biologique et dans le cadre du Protocole de Cartagena qui l'accompagne sur la Prévention des Risques Biotechnologiques, ainsi que le travail plus spécifique sur les aspects de l'alimentation et de l'agriculture accompli par l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture (FAO), souvent effectué conjointement avec l'Organisation de la Santé Mondiale et l'Agence Internationale de l'Energie Atomique (AIEA). Ce document donne également une brève historique et un champ d'action de la Commission Codex Alimentarius en ce qui concerne la biotechnologie et la sécurité alimentaire et la mise en oeuvre des normes alimentaires conjointement par la FAO et l'OMS. Les Comités Codex, qui sont le Comité Codex sur l'étiquetage des produits alimentaires, et le Comité Codex sur les Systèmes de Certification et d'Inspection Alimentaires et l'interrelation entre la FAO/OMS, Codex Alimentarius Commission, l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce et la Convention Internationale sur la Protection des Plantes (IPPC), sont également expliqués. Mots clés: Prévention des Risques Biotechnologiques, Organismes Génétiquement Modifiés, Qualité de la nourriture et Sécurité Alimentaire. (Af. J. of Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2(2): 31-38)

      R N Chacha; Ministry of of Agriculture and RuralDevelopment, Nairobi, Kenya; J M Omiti; Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR), Nairobi, Kenya; M S Andama (African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2002-02-01)
      By the year 2025, 83% of the expected global population of 8.5 billion will be living in developing countries. The capacity of global resources and technologies to satisfy the demands of this growing population for food and other agricultural commodities is not assured. In 25 years, Africa's population is projected to increase to 1.3 billion, bringing about intense interest in Africa's agricultural and economic performance, and the potential impact of biotechnology on the economy and the welfare of the continent. Under Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), most processes and many products of biotechnology research are patentable. African countries generally have weak national scientific infrastructure and capacity to innovate and patent new materials as well as enforce biosafety requirements. In order for countries to access biotechnology products or technologies, it will become increasingly important to have policies and procedures on intellectual property rights in place at the national and institutional levels. In view of the extent of the collaborative international programs taking place, strong local partners are required to expedite the adaptation of technologies and materials that are developed through collaborative research. Lack of biotechnological innovations or their limited diffusion by farmers has increased the technological gap with developed countries. Biotechnology will affect even the most isolated villages in various ways. It will neither be wise nor justified for African countries not to effectively participate in this revolution and fight for gaining some of its expected advantages. The current policy indifference will not help our farmers. Key words: biotechnology, patent, global, agriculture, genetically modified (GM), transgenic, biosafety, food security Résumé LA BIOTECHNOLOGIE PEUT AMÉLIORER LA SÉCURITÉ ALIMENTAIRE EN AFRIQUE D'ici l'an 2025, 83% de la population mondiale prévue à 8,5 milliards vivront dans des pays en développement. La capacité des ressources et des technologies mondiales de satisfaire les demandes de cette population croissante en matière d'alimentation et d'autres ressources agricoles n'est pas assurée. Selon les projections, dans 25 ans la population de l'Afrique augmentera de 1,3 milliards et s'accompagnera d'un intérêt intense aux performances agricoles et économiques de l'Afrique, ainsi que l'impact éventuel de la biotechnologie sur l'économie et le bien-être du continent. D'après les Droits de Propriété Intellectuelle en matière de Commerce (TRIPS), la plupart des procédés et des produits de la recherche en biotechnologie sont brevetables. En général, les pays africains ont des infrastructures scientifiques faibles au niveau national et de faibles capacités d'innover et de breveter de nouveaux produits et de mettre en vigueur les exigences de la prévention des risques biotechnologiques. Pour que ces pays aient accès aux produits ou aux technologies de la biotechnologie, il deviendra de plus en plus important d'avoir en place des politiques et des procédures sur les droits de propriété intellectuelle aux niveaux national et institutionnel. Etant donné l'ampleur des programmes internationaux de collaboration qui sont introduits, des partenaires locaux solides sont nécessaires pour expédier l'adaptation des technologies et des produits qui sont mis au point à travers une recherche conjointe. Le manque d'innovations biotechnologiques ou leur diffusion limitée de la part des agriculteurs ont élargi l'écart technologique par rapport aux pays développés. La biotechnologie affectera même les villages les plus isolés de plusieurs manières telles que celles associées à la baisse de la production et des coûts des transactions. Il ne sera ni sage ni justifié pour les pays Africains de ne pas participer efficacement à cette révolution en vue de lutter pour gagner certains des avantages qui en sont attendus au lieu de l'indifférence de la politique actuelle. Mots clés: Biotechnologie, breveter, mondial, agriculture, génétiquement modifiés (GM), trans-génique, prévention des risques biotechnologiques, sécurité alimentaire. (Af. J. of Food and Nutritional Sciences: 2002 2(2): 14-21)
    • Production Methods and Composition of Bushera: A Ugandan Traditional Fermented Cereal Beverage

      Muyanja, CMBK; Department of Food Science and Technology, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, K; Kikafunda, JK; Department of Food Science and Technology, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, K; Narvhus, J A; Department of Food Science, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5036, N-; Helgetun, K; Department of Food Science, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5036, N-; Langsrud, T; Department of Food Science, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5036, N- (Rural Outreach Program (Kenya), 2003-01-01)
      A survey was conducted using a questionnaire to document the production methods of Bushera, a Ugandan traditional fermented cereal beverage, in the districts of Kabale and Rukungiri in the South Western region of Uganda. The chemical composition of raw materials and Bushera was determined using standard methods. Similarities in the production of Bushera in Kabale and Rukungiri districts were observed. In both districts, sorghum grains are usually (80% of respondents) soaked in water overnight (12 h), some households (20%) indicated a soaking period of 24-48 h. Eighty seven percent of the households soaked the grains in streams, rivers and ponds. The germination period for sorghum grains varied between two and four days. Sixty five percent of the households germinated the grains for two-three days. The duration of fermentation of Bushera ranged from one to six days. Most of the households (90%) consumed Bushera after two-four days of fermentation. The moisture, fat, protein and carbohydrate contents of germinated and non-germinated sorghum grains ranged from 8.8-12.4 %, 1.8-3.0 %, 7.2-10.8 % and 77.7-85.7%, respectively. Germinated sorghum flour had lower fat, protein and carbohydrate contents but higher ash and fibre than non-germinated sorghum flour. Germinated millet flour had higher moisture, protein and fibre compared to the non-germinated flour while the latter had higher ash and carbohydrate contents. Germination resulted in an increase in the concentration of sugars in both sorghum and millet grains. Great variations were observed in the proximate composition of Bushera obtained from the households. Under laboratory conditions, the protein content of Bushera produced from germinated grains was higher than Bushera from non-germinated grains (12.2% vs. 10.6%), on dry matter basis. Higher levels of iron, magnesium and zinc were observed in germinated grains due to addition of wood ash during germination. Germinated grains had lower phenol and tannin content compared to non-germinated grains. Résumé Une étude basée sur les réponses à un questionnaire a été menée pour documenter les méthodes de production du Bushera, une boisson de céréales fermentées traditionnelle en Ouganda, dans les districts de Kabale et Rukungiri situés dans la région sud-ouest de l'Ouganda. La composition chimique des matières premières et du Bushera a été établie par méthodes standard. On a observé des similarités dans la production du Bushera dans les districts de Kabale et de Rukungiri. Dans les deux districts, les graines de sorgho sont habituellement (80% des réponses) trempées dans de l'eau pendant une nuit (12h), certains ménages (20%) signalant une période de trempage de 24-48h.Les graines sont trempées dans des ruisseaux, rivières et étangs par 87% des ménages. La période de germination des graines de sorgho varie de 2 à 4 jours. Soixante-cinq pour cent des ménages font germer les graines pendant 2-3 jours. La durée de fermentation du Bushera va de 1 à 6 jours. La majorité des ménages (90%) consomment le Bushera après 2-4 jours de fermentation. Le contenu des graines de sorgho germées et non germées en humidité, graisses, protéines et féculents était de 8,8-12,4%; 1,8-3.0%; 7,7-10,8%; et 77,7-80,2% respectivement. La farine de sorgho germé a une moindre teneur en graisses, protéines et féculents mais une plus forte teneur en cendres et fibres que la farine de sorgho non germé. La farine de millet germé contient plus d'humidité, protéines et fibres que la farine non germée, tandis que cette dernière a une plus forte teneur en cendres et féculents. La germination entraîne une augmentation de la concentration des sucres dans les graines de sorgho et de millet. On a constaté d'importantes variations dans la composition approximative du Bushera obtenu auprès des ménages. En laboratoire, le contenu en protéines du Bushera fait de graines germées était plus élevé que dans le Bushera de graines non germées (12,2% comparé à 10,6%), sur base de matières sèches. Des niveaux plus élevés de fer, magnésium et zinc ont été observés dans les graines germées en raison de l'apport de cendres de bois pendant la germination. Les graines germées avaient une plus basse teneur en phénol et en tanin comparé aux graines non germées. (Af. J. Food Agriculture, Nutrition and Development: 2003 3(1): 10-19)