AbstractWashington University: 19th Century Architectural Photography Collection; This Moorish style palace has since gone into military use. Ahmad Bey, as ruler of Tunisia and the surrounding areas, began at once to modernize his armed forces. Also active in internal reform, Ahmad in 1841 abolished the sale of Negro slaves and in 1846 slavery altogether, and he removed many disabilities endured by the Jews. In Carthage he founded a hospital and, in 1845, Saint-Louis College, which was open to boys of all faiths and was the beginning of secular education in Tunisia. To pay for his reforms, he increased taxation, but this led to revolts in 1840, 1842, and 1843. Prior to his rule, Tunisia was nominally a part of the empire that was ruled by Ottoman Turks. Resisting their claims of sovereignty, he sought the help of France in order to assert his independence. In 1845 he was recognized by the Ottomans as an independent sovereign.