Children&apos;s Work and Schooling: Does Gender Matter? - Evidence from the Peru LSMS Panel Data
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Abstractschooling, housework and income-generating activities. Specifically, it explores whether sickness, employment of adult women, infrastructure and female headship have different impacts on the time use of boys and girls. Girls mostly engage in housework and boys mostly work outside the home. As a work activity housework responds to economic incentives and constraints. The econometric findings suggest that changes in household welfare affect the schooling and work of girls more than boys. Even though educational attainment rates of boys and girls are the same, girls&apos; education responds more to changes in household welfare than does that of boys. Similarly, girl children are more likely to adjust their home time in response to changes in adult female employment and to sickness of household members than boys. Lack of access to energy infrastructure lowers the educational attainment of both boys and girls. It has little affect on their labor. The traditional approach to the determinants of child labor and education, which excludes housework, may understate children&apos;s time use, particularly that of girls. It may therefore also overlook an important gender dimension of educational policy. Safety nets that protect household incomes from employment shocks and sickness and childcare programs that allow adult women to work would decrease the likelihood of girls being pulled out of school. The author is grateful to Christian Grootaert, Steen Jorgensen and seminar participants at the Economist Forum, The World Bank, for helpful comments. The views in this paper are not necessarily those of the World Bank Group or its member countries. Evidence from the Peru LSMS Panel Data I.