African Journal of Teacher Education (AJOTE) is a forum for examining, discussing, and publicising local, national, regional and trans/continental policies, practices, experiments and research on the training, preparation, hiring, and retention of teachers for all levels and tiers of Africa’s education sector.

Recent Submissions

  • Students’ Perceptions on Physical Education Teachers’ Compliance with the Professional Code of Ethics and Conduct in Tanzania

    Mabagala, Stephen (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2016-07-02)
    The nature of Physical Education (PE) is grounded in movements, games and sports; this lends itself to a high rate of interaction between PE teachers and students. As such, PE teachers need to be aware and comply with their professional code of ethics and conduct (PCEC) in their relationship with students during theory and practical lessons as well as during interschool competititons and outside school contexts. The idea of PE teachers' compliance with PCEC in Tanzania has not been widely investigated, so this study is rare and important to the field. The purpose of the study was to determine the perception of students on PE teachers' compliance with PCEC in Tanzania. The study utilized descriptive survey design and was conducted in secondary schools and teachers’ colleges that had PE and sport programs. Purposive sampling was adopted to select PE students and data were collected through a questionnaire. Participants were 720 students who were either studying PE or participating in school sports. It was concluded that PE students perceive their teachers as having a high level of compliance with the PCEC and their perception is influenced by their level of education. It was recommended that there is a need to improve and sustain PE programmes in schools and colleges, emphasize training in the codes for teachers, and moral education for students. There is also a need to improve teacher-student-relationship and school-community partnerships through sports. Further study should be conducted to determine unethical behavior in teacher-student relationships in the context of school sport.  
  • Employee Voice Contexts and Teacher Retention in Remote Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    Boniface, Raymond Mwemezi (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-08-07)
    Retaining teachers in their work stations is influenced by many factors which are contextually explained. Teachers’ retention practices in Tanzania and most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries have been ineffective partly because of being monetary based. While ‘voicing’ is regarded as a more feasible strategy for retaining teachers in these countries, conditions which favour voicing over exiting a remote school particularly in the Tanzanian context have been not systematically mapped out. This article presents and discusses seven conditions, to include: empowering, listening and cooperative leadership; habitability; friendliness outside school environment; investment potentialities; a supportive and peaceful school working environment; life as a “challenge” mindset; as well as patriotism and profession commitment, which were found to favour voicing over exiting a remote school. The findings imply that there is a need to empower teachers to influence change and reforms that matter to them, increasing teachers sense of investment in schools they are posted and in the profession (social and financial capital), checking ‘who goes into the teaching profession and with what level of struggle’; improving school-level relationships including justice practices from leaders and management, positive co-workers exchanges; training teachers to become patriotic to the nation and be committed to the teaching profession; and the need to improve cooperation and understanding between schools and their surrounding communities.
  • Professionalism, Urban Settings, and Teachers’ Self-Efficacy in Developing Countries: A Ghanaian Perspective.

    Gumah, Bernard; Kulbo, Nora Bakabbey; Addo, Prince Clement (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-08-13)
    In achieving the goals of education, it is imperative for teachers to have high self-efficacy which has a direct positive effect on their delivery and for the overall benefit of their pupils. This study was in three-fold. First was to access the influence of teachers’ demographics on their self-efficacy. Second, how work environment influences teachers’ self-efficacy and finally, how their self-efficacy impact students’ performances in the Bolgatanga municipality of Ghana. The efficacy dimensions studied are classroom management practices, classroom instructional practices, and student engagement. It was noted that whiles gender has no significant impact on teachers’ self-efficacy, older, more educated and highly experienced teachers had higher self-efficacy. Also, teachers in the urban area tend to have higher self-efficacy than those in rural areas. Not overlooking other factors, students’ poor performance in some rural areas can largely be attributed to the lower self-efficacy of their teachers as compared to their urban counterparts. Governments should intensify their extrinsic motivation packages to make life more comfortable for teachers working in rural areas and by bridging the rural-urban developmental gap. It is also imperative to intensify self-efficacy in teacher trainees to increase their self-confidence where ever they find themselves.
  • The Middle Ground of Curriculum: History Teachers’ Experiences in Ghanaian Senior High Schools

    Oppong, Charles Adabo; Awinsong, Moses Allor; Apau, Stephen Kwakye (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-05-11)
    This study explores Ghanaian history teachers’ experiences of the "middle ground of curriculum; a crucial stage of curriculum negotiation and a process, according to  Harris (2002), that includes what “teachers individually and collectively perceived and enacted. . . prior to classroom implementation” The study employed the concurrent parallel design (Quan-qual). The researchers collected quantitative data from sixty history teachers in Cape Coast Metropolis through the census method. Six teachers were randomly selected from the sixty to participate in the qualitative phase of the study. The quantitative data was analysed descriptively (means and standard deviations) while the qualitative data was analysed based on emerging themes. The findings revealed that the history departments through departmental relation, subject conceptualisation and governance influence the ways in which teachers negotiate the formal curriculum prior to teaching. More specifically, the study established the interaction of these variables that shape history teachers’ decision-making on the middle ground of the curriculum. The study, therefore, showed that the internalisation of curriculum change is a dynamic process that is evidenced at all levels of curriculum change – the high ground, middle ground of the curriculum, and lower ground
  • Adequacy and Utilization of ICT Resources for Teaching Business Subjects in Senior Secondary Schools in Osun State, Nigeria

    Ademiluyi, Lawrence Femi (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-07-30)
    This study sought to determine the adequacy and utilization of ICT facilities for teaching and learning business subjects in public senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. Mixed method research design involving the distribution of questionnaires and the conduct of follow-up interviews was used for the study. The population consisted of business educators teaching in public secondary schools. No sample was drawn; the entire population was studied. The results show that ICT facilities are barely available, grossly inadequate and largely unutilized in teaching business subjects in Osun State public secondary schools in spite of the much-heralded introduction of ”Opon Imo” computer tablets supposedly made available to all senior secondary school students in the state. The study opined that government and other education stakeholders should provide functional ICT facilities and personnel in public secondary schools.
  • An Assessment of Ghana’s Enacted Kindergarten Curriculum

    Sofo, Seidu; Asola, Eugene F.; Ocansey, Reginald (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-04-21)
    Drawing on the policy enactment theory, the present study assessed the enacted kindergarten (KG) curriculum in Ghana. Participants were 101 kindergarten teachers in one district of the Upper West Region of Ghana. They completed the Kindergarten Enacted Curriculum Scale (KECS) once. The KECS included 13 items (KG1) and 17 items (KG2) that assessed the extent to which participants taught content in four subscales: literacy and numeracy (LN), psychosocial skills (PS), environmental studies (ES), and physical development (PD). Participants responded to items on a 4-point Likert scale as major focus (scored 3), minor focus (scored 2), touched on briefly (scored 1), and not taught (scored 0). Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed for the entire scale and for each subscale. Results indicated that most participants focused on the LN and ES subscales; with the most neglected content areas being the PS and PD subscales. Most KG1 teachers focused on LN (Listening/Speaking—97.7%), with the lowest percentage in PS (Getting Along/Others— 25.0%) and PD (Physical Exercise—29.5%). Similarly, KG2 teachers focused on ES (Healthy Individual-93.0%), and the lowest percentage in PS (Knowing/Living with Others–39.3%) and PD (Spatial Awareness—42.1%). PS was positively correlated with PD, ES, and KECS. Inferential tests revealed gender differences for the PD subscale. Data indicated grade level differences in teaching LN and PD. These findings suggest that kindergarten teachers in this study continued to focus on academics (LN and ES), despite the emphasis of the KG curriculum being on the holistic development of the young child.  Keywords: Assessment, curriculum, kindergarten, Ghana, teachers  
  • The Middle of the Curriculum: History Teachers’ Experiences in Ghanaian Senior High Schools

    Oppong, Charles Adabo; Awinsong, Moses Allor; Apau, Stephen Kwakye (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-05-11)
    This study explores Ghanaian history teachers’ experiences of the "middle ground of curriculum; a crucial stage of curriculum negotiation and a process, according to  Harris (2002), that includes what “teachers individually and collectively perceived and enacted. . . prior to classroom implementation” The study employed the concurrent parallel design (Quan-qual). The researchers collected quantitative data from sixty history teachers in Cape Coast Metropolis through the census method. Six teachers were randomly selected from the sixty to participate in the qualitative phase of the study. The quantitative data was analysed descriptively (means and standard deviations) while the qualitative data was analysed based on emerging themes. The findings revealed that the history departments through departmental relation, subject conceptualisation and governance influence the ways in which teachers negotiate the formal curriculum prior to teaching. More specifically, the study established the interaction of these variables that shape history teachers’ decision-making on the middle ground of the curriculum. The study, therefore, showed that the internalisation of curriculum change is a dynamic process that is evidenced at all levels of curriculum change – the high ground, middle ground of the curriculum, and lower ground
  • The medium of instruction in Ethiopian Higher Education Institutions: Kotebe Metropolitan University Case study.

    Taye, Bekau Atnafu (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-04-01)
    The aim of this article is to examine the medium of instruction in Ethiopian higher education institutions and the perceived consequences of the failure to learn a lingua franca. The study was qualitative and it used interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). Five teachers and five students took part in the interviews and six teachers and six students participated in the FGDs. The findings of the study showed that the role of Amharic as a working language has not been given recognition despite the fact that Amharic was constitutionally granted to be a working language. Due to language barriers, students who are speakers of Oromipha and other languages from the Eastern and Western parts of Ethiopia suffer passivity in the classroom because they do not speak Amharic although Amharic has been taught as a subject in all regional states of the country. Increased identity politics seems to have generated a negative attitude towards Amharic, Ethiopia's former official lingua franca. Non-Amharic native speakers appeared to lose interest in learning Amharic while they were in primary and secondary schools. The absence of an official, common language which could be used for wider communication in higher education has resulted in having challenges among the student population.
  • Core Self-Evaluations among Prisoners on Formal and Vocational Training in Uganda’s Luzira Prison

    Irene, Aheisibwe (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-04-12)
    The study examined the core self-evaluations of prisoners on formal and vocational education in Luzira Prison in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey design using a quantitative approach with.800 participants selected purposively was used. Core self-evaluations were measured using Judge, Erez, Bono and Thoresen’s scale, while data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc test.  The study yielded statistically significant variations among education levels, (F [4, 795] =3.18, p <.05) where a post hoc test revealed significant difference between Degree holders (M = 2.86, SD = .27), on the one hand, and  O’Level (M = 3.00, SD = .29), A ‘level (M = 3.039, SD   = .32) and Diploma (M = 3.00, SD = .29) level students, on the other. The study demonstrates the significance of core self-evaluation to the life prospects of the prison inmate and recommends that prisoners' core self-evaluations be nurtured. It supports studies that correlate core self-evaluations to ultimate reduction in prison congestion and government expenditure.  
  • Preparing Namibian Student Teachers to Teach Literacy in Mother Tongue

    Niipare, Alina Kakunde (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-04-01)
    Scholars of language teaching agree that the development of initial literacy is best achieved when taught in the mother tongue. Namibia’s language policy for schools prescribes teaching using mother tongue or the predominant local language as a medium of instruction during the first three years of schooling. This study reports on a study of how Namibian lecturers prepare student teachers to teach literacy in mother tongue (Oshikwanyama and Oshindonga) dialects of Oshiwambo language. Data were collected through classroom observations, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The main findings are that most of the lecturers were proficient in the languages in question and they fluently explained the literacy content in Oshikwanyama and Oshindonga. However, the preparation was constrained by a lack of prescribed books in the African languages. The study aims at filling a gap in the literature on how Namibian student teachers are prepared to teach literacy in mother tongue grounded within a sociocultural perspective.
  • Prevalence of Psychoactive Substance Use Among Undergraduate Students at Chirunga College, Malawi.

    Kuyokwa, John; Chiziwa, Symon Ernest; Semphere, Nertha (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-04-01)
    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of use of psychoactive substances among undergraduate students at Chirunga College in Malawi.  The study was guided by Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour. Mixed research methodologies were used, in which both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were employed in data generation and analysis. SPSSv20 and Excel were used in quantitative data analysis and qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The study involved 147 participants and the findings revealed that (34%) of students used psychoactive substances. It recommends that undergraduate students who use psychoactive substances like any other user of these substances, require help. Accordingly, as an institution of higher learning, Chirunga College has to take the necessary steps to address this problem; including introducing counselling and psychotherapy services at the institution
  • SUSTAINABILITY OF SCHOOL-BASED FOOD AID IN BAHI DISTRICT OF TANZANIA’S DODOMA REGION AFTER THE END OF WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME SUPPORT

    Nemes, Joyce Exusper (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2018-11-01)
    This study investigated the sustainability of school-based food drive after the phasing out of the World Food Programme (WFP) aid initiative in Bahi district of Dodoma region, Tanzania. The study found that none of the 72 public primary schools in Bahi district had managed to provide school lunch during the post-WFP by October 2017. Only 10 schools managed to provide porridge rather than full lunch to the pupils during the review period. The public primary schools under review were unable to sustain the School Food Programme due to the poor level of parental contributions, drought and widespread poverty. The study also found that parents complained about the school food programme lacking support within the national policy framework.  The study recommends the application of the Resource Dependency Theory to sustain the SFP and government’s intervention to boost agricultural production and empower the people to support their wards and the SFP at their wards’ school.  
  • The integration of Information and Communication Technology for teaching and learning at Ghanaian Colleges of Education: ICT Tutors’ Perceptions

    Edumadze, John Kwame Eduafo (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2016-07-02)
    ICT is used more at the workplace than in the classroom mainly due to the lack of its extensive integrated into the curriculum by teachers. With the increasing use of ICT in our society, teachers must be at the forefront of it use in order to train their students in its proper use. Ghana’s Colleges of Education (COEs) are the first place where ICT education should begin since they are responsible for the training of teachers in the country. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the extent of ICT integration in Ghana's COEs. This study, based on the UNESCO’s literature on ICT integration in education and teachers’ adoption of ICT, examines the perception of ICT tutors in COEs on the goal to strengthen ICT curriculum in COEs. It also examines their perception of the capability of their students to competently teach ICT studies at the Basic levels in Ghana's education system. Results from the study show that tutors are of the view that ICT integration for teaching and learning are at the beginning stages with respect to Anderson’s ICT in Education model. They also are of the view that an elective ICT course should be introduced to train teacher-trainees who will specialise in ICT teaching at our basic level. Finally the study made recommendations to address these challenges.
  • USABILITY OF COMPUTERS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING AT TERTIARY-LEVEL INSTITUTIONS IN UGANDA

    Neema-Abooki, Peter Akampa; Rukia, Nakintu (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2015-08-18)
    Since a computer-enriched learning environment is positively correlated with users’ attitudes towards computers in general, the rationale of this study was to investigate the extent to which computers were applied in the teaching and learning at tertiary-level institutions; specifically at the Core Primary Teachers’ Colleges (PTCs). The study accordingly set out to examine this duo-fold ideal at Shimoni and Kibuli Core PTCs; both in Kampala District in Uganda. The specific objectives were to find out the level to which computers have been integrated in teaching and leaning at PTCs and to determine the competency of both the tutors and the students in the use of information and communication technology (ICT). Both categories served as respondents to whom a questionnaire was subjected. Findings indicated that although computers were generally being integrated in the teaching process, there was need for more guidance and support in order to ensure expertise of both tutors and students in the use of ICT. This article is cognisant that integration of technology requires a move from the traditional model of teacher presentation to a learning model whereby students draw information relevant to their future profession. 
  • Training a New Generation for Careers in Wildlife Management in Ethiopia

    Pai, Murali; Serekebirhan, Takele K. (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2016-07-02)
    This article describes the start-up of a new interdisciplinary Master’s program in Wildlife Management at Arba Minch University (AMU), Ethiopia. The need, salient features, review of curriculum, and stakeholders of the program are examined. The human dimensions of wildlife management have been given its due with an aim to get biodiversity stewardship on a firm footing in the country. The program, aims to link young graduates to regional stakeholders on conservation perspectives through courses such as Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management, Wildlife Economics and Entrepreneurship and Biodiversity Conservation. The scope of wildlife tourism in Ethiopia has been highlighted in the program. The survey results of stakeholder representatives found good prospects for the sustainability of the MSc program in wildlife management provided stakeholder coordination and community participation in the program are diligently ensured. In conclusion, the Master’s program in wildlife management is interdisciplinary, job-oriented and intended to prepare a new generation for placements with the government, NGOs and private sector in order to contribute to wildlife management and biodiversity stewardship in Ethiopia
  • TEACHING STYLES AND EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    Jabbar, Saheed Olanrewaju (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2018-11-01)
    The objective of the study was to examine the prevailing teaching style and educational philosophies of teachers in Kano metropolis, Nigeria, and to determine whether there was a relationship between the two variables. Descriptive survey research design was used in the conduct of the study. The population of the study consisted of a sample of 124 secondary school teachers in Kano metropolis. Robert Leahy Philosophic Inventory (1995) was adapted as data collection instrument. The data obtained were analyzed using percentage, mean, t-test and ANOVA. Findings of the study reveal that lecture method was the most frequently used teaching method by teachers while essentialism was the predominating educational philosophy of teachers. A moderate positive relationship exists between teachers’ preferred teaching style and their educational philosophies but no statistically significant difference was found in the teaching styles of the male and female teachers in Kano Metropolis. Similarly, there was no significant difference in teachers’ teaching styles with respect to their qualifications. Among other things, the study recommends continuous professional development of teachers through regular in-service training in order to equip them with modern and contemporary educational philosophies and teaching styles.
  • The Perceived Importance of Communication Skills Course among University Students: The Case of Two Universities in Tanzania

    Komba, Sotco Claudius (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2016-07-02)
    This article is based on a study which was conducted to examine the perceived importance of communication skills course among Tanzanian university students. A total of 134 undergraduate students, randomly selected from two Tanzanian universities, were involved in this study.  The study adopted a case study design in order have an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. Both a questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data from the respondents. The collected data were analysed using thematic content analysis. It was revealed that the communication skills course was perceived by the majority of the respondents as an important course for the acquisition of communication skills needed in academic settings. It is recommended that universities should improve the delivery of the course by ensuring that both human and material resources are adequately available for the realization of the anticipated course outcomes.
  • The Effects of Phonological Awareness on Word Formation and Decoding Skills of Disabled Readers

    Makinde, Solomon O (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2016-07-02)
    In the recent times, educators and researchers have focused attention on the identification of methods to increase the effectiveness of reading instruction in our schools. One of the most compelling and well-established findings in this field of research is the important relation between phonological awareness and reading. This study examined the effects of phonological awareness on the word formation and decoding skills of disabled beginning readers. Data gathered using a quasi-experimental design involving 100 pupils in experimental and control conditions showed significant achievement on the skills of decoding t (98) = 15.22 p < 0.05 and word formation t (98) = 16.02 p < 0.05. The implications of the findings of the study for reading instruction in developing countries are drawn.
  • AJOTE: Editor's Note Special Issue Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Part II

    Abidogun, Jamaine (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2016-07-02)
  • TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS THAT INFLUENCE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL LANGUAGE SKILLS AMONG PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN NAIROBI CITY COUNTY, KENYA

    Okelo, Kenneth Odhiambo (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2018-11-01)
    This article presents the findings from our investigation of teachers’ characteristics that influence development of oral language skills among pre-primary pupils. The study was conducted in 83 schools in Kibra Sub-County, Kenya. Questionnaires and observation schedules were used to collect data. Data was analysed using SPSS. The main findings of the study indicate that teaching strategies that were mostly used by pre-primary school teachers were code-switching, examples, repetition, substitution and explanation. On the other hand, questions, direction, expansion of children words and contrast were the least used teaching strategies when teaching oral language skills. The study revealed that the there is a slight correlation between the type of training teachers received and the teaching strategies they used as most of the DICECE (District Centres for Early Childhood Education, Kenya) trained teachers used more teaching strategies when teaching oral skills compared to non-DICECE teachers. The findings also revealed that there was some correlation between teacher’s academic qualifications and their use of a few teaching strategies. There was also some correlation between teaching experience and the use of a few teaching strategies. Since the strategies used by pre-primary school teachers under the study were less than half of the recommended teaching strategies to promote oral skills, the study recommends that teachers should be encouraged to use more in structural strategies to improve children’s oral language skills.

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