African Journal of Teacher Education (AJOTE) is a forum for examining, discussing, and publicising local, national, regional and trans/continental policies, practices, experiments and research on the training, preparation, hiring, and retention of teachers for all levels and tiers of Africa’s education sector.

Recent Submissions

  • The Paradox of Ghanaian High School Mathematics Teachers’ Perspectives on ICT Use

    Mensah, Farouq Sessah; Agyei, Douglas Darko (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-05-12)
    The paper sought to investigate the perceived use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) of high school mathematics teachers in Ghana. A hundred high school mathematics teachers from 20 public schools,10 each located in the rural and urban areas respectively in the Central region of Ghana, were stratified and used in the study. A questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The result of the study indicated low levels of perceived knowledge/skills of ICT use by high school mathematics teachers, contrary to their reported high usage levels of ICTs. The findings of the study also indicated that the high school mathematics teachers’ ICT use in a professional related context (instructional delivery, assessment, and professional learning network) was minimal compared to use for social networking, although they seemed to be fully aware of the relevance of using ICT in a professional related manner. Similarly, their reported technical knowledge/skills of ICT were low. Thus, the results of the study suggest that, though the teachers reported high ICT usage, actual usage seems to be at the peripheries. Among other things,  this study has implications for curriculum development and training in Ghana and countries of similar context. It may be necessary for the  Curriculum Research Development Division (CRDD) of the Ghana Education Service in collaboration with the related agencies to explicitly define parameters such as what ICT tools must be used, when they must be used, and how they should be used when reviewing and revising their mathematics teaching curriculum.  
  • What to do when Teens say "Amka Ukatike": An Exploration of Agency in Teen Oral Literacy Performed Through Kenyan Hip Hop.

    Wandera, David B (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2013-04-07)
  • Phonology in Teacher Education in Nigeria: The Igbo Language Example

    Nkamigbo, Linda Chinelo (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2011-10-14)
    The goals of education cannot be achieved without language. Language is actively involved in the production of qualified teachers who will teach at various levels of the educational system. Furthermore, linguistics is the area of study that is concerned with objective and empirical study of language, and phonology undoubtedly is a crucial aspect of this set up. This paper addresses the issues of phonological facilitation and interference in both teacher training and general education in sub-Saharan Africa. These phonological phenomena are critically examined as they feature in Igbo, one of the major African languages, spoken predominantly in South-Eastern Nigeria. The sound system of Igbo influences that of the English of the native Igbo speakers. Therefore, this paper recommends that the language instructor should focus on the variations in the English of the native Igbo speakers in order to achieve a near Standard English by the Igbo speakers of English.
  • Determinants of Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Teaching

    KINUTHIA, FLORENCE NJERI; Kombo, Donald Kisilu; Mweru, Maureen (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2013-05-09)
    This study sought to investigate determinants of pre-school teachers’ attitudes towards teaching in Thika Municipality, Kenya. The concern to stakeholders was the negative attitudes of the pre-school teachers towards teaching. Such a concern called for investigation. To accomplish this task, a descriptive survey design and Ex-post facto design were used. A total of 53 pre-school teachers and 12 administrators participated in the study. A simple random technique and purposive sampling were employed to identify study samples. In addition, questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The statistical procedures were carried out using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Qualitative and quantitative techniques were employed in order to analyse the obtained data. The study revealed there were still low levels of training among pre-school teachers, teachers with few years of teaching experience were the ones involved in teaching in the pre-schools and teachers in public pre-schools were more positive towards their job than their colleagues in private schools. Among the recommendations were that pre-school teachers work under the Ministry of Education and an attempt be made to improve the retention level of teachers. Administrators should also work on modalities of motivating their teachers.
  • Factors Influencing Early Childhood Development Teachers’ Motivation in Thika District, Kenya

    Ndani, Mary N.; Kimani, Elishiba N (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2011-10-14)
    Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres comprise one of the immediate social and physical environments influencing children’s development, that Bronfenbrenner (1986, 1989) terms Microsystems. The Microsystems are made up of personal qualities of the people therein (particularly teachers) and the physical environments. In order for ECD centres to provide the necessary conditions for children’s holistic development, teachers should be well motivated and physical facilities conducive for working and learning.  The sample of the study was comprised of 40 ECD centres and 46 ECD teachers. Preschool Teachers’ Motivation Questionnaire and an observation checklist were used to collect the primary data. Secondary data were obtained from various records in the ECD centres. Among the key findings was the revelation that the motivation levels of more than 50% of the teachers were below average. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education and communities work together to improve ECD teachers’ terms and conditions of service as well as the learning/teaching environment.

    Nwana, Sabina (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2012-04-14)
    This is an empirical research study which investigated the challenges in the application of e-learning in secondary schools in Onitsha North LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) teachers in public secondary schools were used as the sample for the study. A self-developed instrument (TIUELM) on the availability and use of e-learning materials was used for data collection. The instrument contained 25 items. The reliability co-efficient of the instrument stood at 0.88. The data collected were analyzed using frequency distribution and mean. The findings revealed: acute shortage of e-learning materials such as on-line/internet-connected computers, e-mail facilities, multimedia television, multimedia computer and digital library. It was also revealed that the few available ones such as off-line/ordinary computers, scanner, printer and ready-made courseware are not utilized because the teachers lack the knowledge and skills of computer application. The only material identified as available and in use is the telephone. It was recommended among other things that, the government should embark on a massive computer training program for teachers. Teachers should be trained and retrained through in–service training, seminars, workshops and conferences for acquisition of the knowledge and skills needed for e-learning application in secondary schools in Nigeria.
  • AJOTE Summer 2012, Editor's Note

    Abidogun, Jamaine (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2012-10-14)
  • Teachers’ Awareness of the Existence and the Use of Technology to Promote Children’s Literacy Instruction

    Obidike, Ngozi; Anyikwa, Ngozi; Enemou, Joy O (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2011-10-14)
    This paper examined the awareness of teachers of nursery and primary schools on the existence of the technological resources that could be used to support children's literacy instruction, as well as the use of such technological resources for enriching children's literacy instruction. The study was carried out in Awka Local Government Education Zone in Anambra State, Nigeria. Two (2) research questions guided the study. Five (500) nursery and primary school teachers were selected as the sample for the study using simple random sampling technique. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection which was analyzed using mean scores. The findings, among others, were that both the nursery and primary school teachers are able to identify the technological tools that could be used to enhance literacy instruction in children but are not aware of how such resources could be used. Suggestions for improvement were provided. 
  • Atlantic Slavery: Lost in Trans-lation

    Stabler, Scott L; Owusu, Mary (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2013-11-17)
    “Who benefited more from the Transatlantic Slave Trade: Ghanaians or Europeans?” Ghana Ministry of Education and Sports:2008, 17). That’s the test question on the official government syllabus/standards for Ghanaian schools. The syllabus also lists the benefits of colonization and that list far outweighs the detriments. The lack of a broader understanding about the devastation brought on by the Transatlantic Slave Trade (TAST) is not exclusive to Ghana, but proves similar in the United States and likely throughout the world. Generally, the TAST appears lost in Trans-lation in secondary schools. The Transatlantic Slave Trade forms the most transnational exchange surrounding Africa and the African Diaspora. The TAST to the Americas relocated millions of people, killed untold more, treated them as property based on their melanin, caused many wars and affects the world today. To broaden our understanding of the pedagogies of the TAST, Ghanaian secondary teachers were interviewed, textbooks and the national standards were reviewed along with Ghana's role at the heart of the TAST with Cape Coast as a central embarking point. We discovered a lack of instruction about the transnational and contemporary impacts of the TAST at the secondary level. Through our study of the TAST’s instruction in Ghana’s secondary schools a need to expand how teachers inform students about the breadth of the TAST was discovered. This article will focus primarily on Ghana’s lack of transnational reach at the secondary school level due to the limits of standardized testing, the Ghana Educational Service’s syllabus, the textbooks utilized, assessments, poverty, teacher awareness and neocolonialism. This study also examines why transnational exchange in teaching the TAST proves essential in the secondary school classroom in Ghana and beyond.Ghana Ministry of Education. (2008). Teaching Syllabus for Social Studies Senior High School. Accra: Ghana Ministry of Education and Sports.[i]Teaching Syllabus for Social Studies, Senior High School, Ghana Ministry of Education and Sports, 2008, 17.
  • Meeting the Personnel Needs of Anambra State Industrialists in Nigeria: A Call for Mathematics Education Reforms

    Okigbo, Ebele C; Nwoye, Amarachukwu N (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2012-10-19)
    The study examined that extent the mathematics education graduates meet the personnel needs of the industrialists in Anambra State. Ninety-four (94) out of 198 managers (employers) from the three private industrial zones in Anambra State, Nigeria were included in the investigation. A descriptive survey instrument was constructed by the researchers based on professional and ICT competencies which incorporated 25 items. Analysis of results showed that: a. Mathematics education graduates posses all the needed professional competencies as identified by Industrialists, b. 41.7% of the needed ICT competencies were acquired by the graduates while 58.3% were not, c. There is a significant difference in the mean ratings of the Industrialists on the expected versus acquired ICT competencies of mathematics education graduates. The findings of the study suggest that Nigeria’s mathematics education program should be revised to reflect the acquisition of ICT skills within the mathematics contents.
  • Teachers’ Influence on Children’s Selection and Use of Play Materials in Kenya

    Mweru, Maureen (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2012-07-23)
    Gender socialization has an impact on children and any gender stereotyped verbal comments or activities assigned to children by those in charge are bound to influence the attitudes children have of themselves. This exploratory study therefore set out to investigate among 36 Kenyan preschool teachers if they hold gender-stereotyped views and if they communicate these views to children during selection and use of play materials. To collect data, an observation schedule was used. T-tests were then performed to find specific intergroup differences. Teachers were found to influence children in a gender stereotyped manner with more influence being exerted on boys than on girls. This influence on the children may encourage the children to adopt gender roles that are not always fair to both genders. This study therefore advocates for the encouragement and training of teachers to adopt an androgynous gender role attitude. In this way teachers may also encourage this same attitude in preschool children.

    Olaoye, Adetunji Abiola (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2012-04-16)
    This study was designed to examine mathematics teachers’ workload vis-à-vis the students’ performance in Mathematics and as a correlation to quality assurance in upper basic education. As a descriptive study it consisted of four research questions and hypotheses at 5% level of significance. The study sample was comprised of twenty public secondary schools from which thirty-two mathematics teachers and one thousand and two hundred upper basic level 2 students were purposively selected for the study. Two instruments, a Mathematics Achievement Test (r = 0.78) and a “Questionnaire for Mathematics Teachers’ Workloads in Upper Basic Education Level 2” (r = 0.83) were used for the study. Data were analysed through simple percentages, Pearson moment correlation, t-test and one way ANOVA. Findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between mathematics teachers’ gender and students’ performance in Mathematics (t-cal>t-ratio, df = 1198; P<0.05) but there was no significant relationship between mathematics teachers’ qualification and students’ performance in Mathematics (F-cal<F-ratio, df = {4, 1194}; P>0.05). However, it was found that there was a significant relationship between mathematics teachers’ subject(s) taught and students’ performance in Mathematics (t-cal>t-ratio, df = 1198; P<0.05). Furthermore, study revealed that there was a significant relationship between mathematics teachers’ workload and students’ performance in Mathematics (F-cal>F-ratio, df = {7, 1191}; P<0.05). The implications of the findings were discussed and recommendation suggested towards ensuring better quality assurance for Mathematics in upper basic education.
  • Differentiating Instruction to Meet the Needs of Diverse Technical/Technology Education Students at the Secondary School level

    Ireh, Maduakolam; Ibeneme, Ogo T (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2011-10-14)
    Effective teaching requires fostering success for all students, and to help them become productive, problem-solvers, and self-directed learners. This is more so in Technical/Technology Education where learners do not all learn the same thing in the same way or on the same day. As such, technical education teachers must consider each learner based on needs, readiness, preferences, and interests. This paper gives insights on how to effectively achieve this success in the classroom, through the use of Differentiated Instruction (DI)-an approach that enables teachers to plan strategically as well as provide a variety of options to successfully reach all students.  Differentiated Instruction allows teachers to meet learners where they are and offer challenging and appropriate options for them to achieve success. The paper highlights other areas where this teaching technique could be applied toward students' motivation, engagement, and academic growth. The authors also explain the three elements of the curriculum that can be differentiated: Content, Process, and Products. Other issues concerning the teaching-learning process are also discussed in the paper.
  • The Developmental Conditions of Classroom Teaching and Learning in a Primary School in Zimbabwe

    NDLOVU, SIBONOKUHLE NIL; Muthivhi, Azwihangwisi E. (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2013-06-11)
    The paper bases upon the research that was carried in 2010 to investigate the prevailing conditions of schooling and classroom teaching and learning in Southern Zimbabwe, using the Vygotskian socio-cultural theory to analyse the consequences that the breakdown of schooling and classroom teaching and learning had on learners'performance and cognitive development. Using a case study of the specific primary school in Gwanda district, the findings were that classroom teaching and learning in rural Zimbabwe was adversely affected by a conglomerate of contextual factors and worsened by the prevailing socio-economic and political problems resulting in contradictory classroom practices of teaching and learning.The analysis revealed the extent to which classroom teaching and learning had deteriorated and how the cultural practices of this specific tradtion of schooling impede on the possibilities for meaningful learning activities in the classroom. The paper contributes towards an understanding of the effects of the specific cultural conditions of schooling on learners' learning and cognitive development within the prevailing context of socio-economic and political instability in Zimbabwe and suggests ways in which teachers could organise pedagogy to assist their learners' learning and cognitive development.
  • The Upgrading of Teacher Training Institutions to Colleges of Education: Issues and Prospects

    Newman, Emmanuel Kojo (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2013-11-24)
    In year 2008, 38 publicly-owned Teacher Training Institutions (TTIs) that offered certificate programmes to prepare teachers for basic schools in Ghana, were elevated to tertiary status and re-designated as Colleges of Education (COEs) to offer tertiary programmes .  Since the elevation and re-designation of TTIs as Colleges of Education, the institutions have faced various challenges which threaten the consolidation of their status as tertiary institutions. These challenges which border on governance, regulation, management, autonomy of the Colleges among others, must be critically examined and addressed to enable the institutions to discharge their mandate effectively. This article examines the challenges and prospects of Colleges of Education as they evolve as tertiary education institutions.
  • Promoting Teacher Ethics in Colleges of Teacher Education in Tanzania: Practices and Challenge

    Anangisye, William A L (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2011-10-10)
    This paper focuses on the initiatives and challenges of promoting ethics in teacher training colleges. It draws on qualitative data; generated from Dar es Salaam, Iringa and Mbeya regions of Tanzania in East Africa. Data collected reflect views of informants, including teacher educators, school teachers, student teachers, school inspectors, Teachers Service Department (TSD) officers, and education officers. The data was generated from both interviews (primary) and documentary (secondary) sources. Analysis of data involved data reduction, organization, and interpretation (Huberman & Miles 1994). The findings unveiled two major initiatives: the use of college regulations and the teaching of religious code of conduct. Challenges, on the other hand, ranged from the absence of a course related to teacher ethics, professional "incompetence" of teacher educators, shortage of qualified teachers, lack of resources, the moral problem of society or the irresponsibility of parents and society. The study has concluded that without a well-defined education policy in favour of promoting teacher ethics education, efforts to that effect are doomed to fail
  • The Role of Arts Education in Nigeria

    Enamhe, Bojor Blossom (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2013-05-22)
     This paper explores the meaning of Arts and Education from different perspectives. After a careful exploration of the meaning of arts, the paper highlights the role of art in Education with special reference to Nigeria. Art empowers individuals with creative skills that widen the base of participation in the society, create jobs, self reliance, identity, communicates by creating, recording and transferring ideas. It builds and perpetuates social, religious, political and economic stability. On the basis of this, suggestions are offered for developing Art Education in Nigeria. Art Education is a basic and very important aspect of our Education and should not be treated otherwise. Art should be given premium like other subjects in the school curriculum. It should reflect a study of all ages, as this is vital in the development of individuals.  
  • An Implicit Analysis of the Prevalence of Test Anxiety among Preservice Teachers

    ANANE, ERIC (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2013-11-21)
    This unique study, which was carried out in an area that seemed under researched, collected data from 100 female preservice teachers in a college of education in Ghana on the actual sources and protest-march of test anxiety among trainee teachers, considering the peculiar position teachers occupy in the learning chain. Data were collected by using an adapted version of the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) developed by Spielberger and Vagg. A key finding is that, external agents such as future job security tend to be the major source of trainees’ test anxiety, which is at variance with what literature seems to suggest that students who experience test anxiety tend to be the type of people who put a lot of pressure on themselves to perform well. The findings seem to suggest that, tests in themselves do not stimulate anxiety but the premium and how high the stakes are for the test, tend to kindle anxious moments for preservice teachers.

    Umoru, Titus A; Okeke, A U (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2012-05-02)
    This article focuses on the challenges of technical and vocational education in mitigating climate change induced catastrophes in Nigeria. The concepts of climate change and related areas were discussed in the paper including the causes and effects of climate, as well as, issues of prevention, preparation and adaptation processes. The roles that technical and vocational education may play in preparing citizens to prevent, adapt and mitigate the effects of climate change are presented. These include technical assistance; conducting research with a view to improve the quality of predictions of future changes to regional and environmental conditions; and changing the attitudes of citizens through education and public enlightenment to achieve a balance between ethics and the management of the environment. In light of these issues, the authors view technical and vocational education as an effective and significant tool in ameliorating the effects of climate change. It is recommended that technical and vocational education practitioners use their understanding of science and technology to deal with challenges posed by climate change in Nigeria.
  • Pre-service Teachers’ Teaching Competencies: The Experience of Practising Teaching in Secondary Schools and Teacher Colleges

    Nzilano, Josta Lameck (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2013-06-11)
     The purpose of this study was to explore the competences of pre-service teachers from Tanzania’s University of Dar es Salaam during practice teaching in secondary schools and teacher education colleges. The following were the objectives of the study: first to examine the ways pre-service teachers prepared for classroom teaching, and second to assess the effectiveness of pre-service teachers in managing classroom teaching and learning activities. The study involved 30 pre-service teachers and 8 educational officers from secondary schools and teacher colleges. The instruments for data collection were a questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, portfolio reviews, and classroom observations. Results revealed the limited competencies among pre-service teachers in classroom teaching. The study recommended reforms of the pre-service teachers’ professional development program, the improvement of the educational policies, and the cooperation between educational managers from schools, colleges, and the Ministry of Education for quality education. 

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