African Journal of Teacher Education (AJOTE) is a forum for examining, discussing, and publicising local, national, regional and trans/continental policies, practices, experiments and research on the training, preparation, hiring, and retention of teachers for all levels and tiers of Africa’s education sector.

Recent Submissions

  • Utilization of Information Communication Technologies in Effective Administration of Secondary Schools in Mitooma District of Uganda

    Irene, Aheisibwe (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-06-18)
    The study aimed at assessing the utilization of Information Communication Technologies in the effective administration of secondary schools in Mitooma district, Uganda.  A cross-sectional survey design was employed. Data was collected using a closed-ended questionnaire developed by Özdemir et al. (2014) and an interview guide.  Statistical Package for Social Scientists software version 23.0 was used to analyze the data. The study revealed a lack of knowledge and skills of ICT, limited electricity supply, poor quality computers, and inadequacy of computer accessories as reasons for the non-utilization of ICT.   
  • Student-Teachers’ Experiences and Strategies of Managing Disruptive Behaviours in Tanzania Secondary Schools.

    Majani, William Pastory (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-06-18)
    This paper reports on student-teachers’ experiences during a six-week teaching practicum of disruptive classroom behaviours by students in selected Tanzanian secondary schools and the strategies that the student-teachers employed to manage them. Questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data from 70 student-teachers. Using qualitative thematic analysis and descriptive quantitative analysis strategies, it was revealed that student-teachers did very little to enhance appropriate classroom behaviours. Instead, they relied on punitive strategies such as punishment to deal with disrupting students. Reliance on punitive measures limited their ability to use positive feedback, tolerance and relational support strategies, which are regarded as more effective in fostering appropriate classroom behaviours by empowering students to take control of their own behaviour. These findings have important implications for teacher training programmes, and students learning. The paper concludes by asserting that like any other lessons, appropriate behaviours in classrooms need to be taught and nurtured not simply demanded.
  • Effect of Synthetic and Natural Specimen Use on Process Skills and Applications in Secondary School Biology Practical in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

    Adebisi, Thomas; Oladimeji,, Oladimeji (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-05-23)
    Effective teaching of Biology practical entails the use of specimens. However, in Nigeria, some natural specimens are difficult to obtain when needed, hindering the learning and application of science process skills. Consequently, teachers resort to pictorial representation of specimen and to online prints for Biology practical instructions. Another possible alternative less discussed is the use of synthetic or artificial specimens. The goal of this study, therefore, was to examine the effect of using synthetic and natural specimen on practical skills- process skills acquisition and application in Biology practical in secondary schools. It sought to determine the efficacy of using synthetic specimens to complement or substitute for natural specimens in teaching Biology practical. The study employed the pre-test, post-test, control group, quasi- experimental design. A total of 212 senior secondary school (SS II) Biology students in six selected government-owned high schools in Moba and Ijero Local Government Area of Ekiti state, Nigeria, were randomly selected for the study. The schools were paired and assigned to two experimental groups (using synthetic and natural specimens) and a control group (using conventional drawings). Eight instruments were employed for the study and used at treatment stage. Data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA). The results showed that there was a significant effect of synthetic specimens and natural specimens on the proficiency of the students in basic science process skills acquisition (F = 60.470, P<0.05). However, the mean gain of 3.884 which existed between the two groups showed that natural specimens were slightly more effective than synthetic specimens. The results also showed a significant effect for the use of synthetic specimens on process skills acquisition and applications of Biology concept among the students (F = 74.773, P<0.05). The study concluded that synthetic specimens are equally effective as natural specimens in improving the acquisition and application of basic science process skills of students in Biology.
  • Process skills application and scientific attitudes of Biology students in colleges of education in southwestern Nigeria

    KAREEM, ADEYINKA (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-05-23)
    West African Examination Council results have continued to reveal Nigeria’s high school students’ poor performance in Science subjects, and especially, in practical science (WAEC 2014). The students’ demonstration of essential scientific attitudes is noted to be deficient. This is possibly caused by ineffective teaching and learning produced by the absence of necessary practical classes. This study, therefore, assessed the process skills application and scientific attitudes of Biology students in colleges of education in southwestern Nigeria as well as the relationship between the two variables. These groups of variables are central to students developing skills and knowledge in science and a determination of levels of competence in them would facilitate appropriate interventions to improve teaching and learning of science. The study adopted descriptive research survey design. The population for the study included all Biology students in colleges of education in southwestern Nigeria. From the four federal and seven state colleges of education in southwestern Nigeria, two federal colleges of education and three state colleges of education were randomly selected to ensure adequate representation of the two school categories. One hundred Biology students were randomly selected from each of the two school categories. Two instruments were used for the study. These were Biology Process Skill Application Rating Scale (BPSARS) and Biology Scientific Attitude Questionnaire (BSAQ). A reliability value of 0.72 for BPSARS and 0.76 for BSAQ was gotten using Cronbach alpha coefficient. The result revealed that there existed a moderate application of process skills and a moderate level of scientific attitude among the respondents as 67.3% and 84.8% having a moderate level of process skills application and scientific attitude respectively. It was shown that there was no significant relationship between the process skill application and scientific attitude (r=0.09, p>0.05) of respondents in the study area
  • Secondary School Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives on Cooperative Group Work Assessment Challenges in Ethiopia

    Gedamu, Abate Demissie; Shewangezaw, Getu Lema (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-05-23)
    Cooperative Learning (CL) has been encouraged in Ethiopia’s secondary schools as an important strategy to facilitate effective student learning. However, the effectiveness of CL hinges, among other factors, on appropriate assessment of students’ group work. Challenges faced by teachers and students in implementing assessment of group work have remained an obstacle to the effective use of CL. The aim of this study was therefore to examine what Ethiopian secondary school teachers and students, respectively, consider to be problems and obstacles in the way of efficiently implementing student the cooperative group work assessment. Accordingly, 213 teachers and 212 students were randomly selected for a questionnaire survey. In addition, two teachers and five students were also interviewed and a focus group discussion (FGD) was carried out in each of the five schools selected for data gathering. The data acquired through the questionnaire was analyzed through one-sample t-test while the data obtained through interviews and FGD were analyzed through qualitative verbal descriptions. The findings indicate the main challenges from the point of view of the teachers to be their inadequate training on the assessment of group work process and individual contributions; uncertainty on what should be assessed, and heavy workloads. From the students’ perspective, the main challenges were inadequate teacher support and follow up and equal reward for unequal contribution by members to group work.
  • Accent and Ugandan Students’ Comprehension of Mathematical Concepts and Terms: An Experimental Study

    Kemeza, Imelda; Balimuttajjo, Sudi; Sarvate, Dinesh G (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-05-01)
    The embrace of diversity and multiculturalism in education facilitates the broadening of students’ experiences as they engage with teachers and classmates from backgrounds different than their own. However, while the positive effects of diversity on students are apparent, few studies have examined possible negative challenges that diversity might have on students. Where most subject matter is taught via classroom lectures and the lecture material is presented by a speaker with a different accent than the student is used to hearing, does it make the material harder for the student to understand?  On the other hand, could it increase the focus and engagement required by the students in the classroom, and in the process increase their understanding? In this vein, our research sought understand whether students’ learning of the subject matter hindered when they are taught material by a teacher with a different accent.  To this end, we designed a simple experiment with a small group of undergraduate students in Uganda, to address this question, the result of which we present in this study.
  • Affordances and Constraints of Implementing Lesson Study for Teachers’ Professional Development: A Review

    KIHWELE, JIMMY (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-04-14)
    Lesson Study (LS) has been adopted worldwide as a research tool for teachers who teach the same subjects to cooperate in identifying problems, planning a lesson, teaching that lesson and coming up with solutions to the problem identified. This helps them grow professionally. This study is a review of approaches to implementing LS in different places, of opportunities that the use of LS provides, and of constraints on its effectiveness and sustainability. In this study, 30 published research articles were thoroughly studied and analyzed so as to answer three key questions that serve as its underpinning. The findings show that the methods used to implement LS vary in many places. However, in several cases, LS practitioners try to implement the original structure of LS as it was implemented in Japan in the 1960s. The findings show that LS affords more pedagogical opportunities than constraint: teachers learn new professional skills and knowledge and they improve their understanding of the subject matter and change their attitudes, beliefs and views on collaborative working.
  • Higher Grading Standards and Academic Motivation: Perceptions of Students and Teachers in a Lagos (Nigeria) Private Secondary School

    Anazia, Innocent Uche (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-04-08)
    Abstract This study used qualitative research method to investigate the views of students and teachers of a private secondary school in Lagos State, Nigeria on whether higher grading standards motivate students. The study was prompted by the decision of the management of the school to increase its grading standard. To guide the study, 10 students and 7 teachers participated in the study. Data were generated using interview technique which centred on three objectives or themes of the study. However, the second objective of the study was targeted at the students, while the third objective or theme was targeted at the teachers. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the perceptions of the students and teachers. The findings revealed that higher grading standards motivate students to study harder and that higher standards benefit both high-achievers and low-achievers. Considering that the study was the first attempt to investigate the issue as it concerns Nigeria, suggestions were made on future studies.    
  • The Influence of Locus of Control, Study Habits and Gender on the Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary School Physics Students in Ibadan Metropolis

    Okeke, Uchenna; Ukoh, Edidiong (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-04-08)
    The study investigated the relationship between Locus of Control, Study Habit, Gender and Academic Achievement of senior secondary school physics students in Ibadan metropolis. The descriptive survey research design was adopted. Seven hundred and fifty senior secondary two (SS2) Physics students were randomly selected from 30 schools in the five local Governments areas of Ibadan Metropolis. Three instruments were used for data collection. The instruments are Physics Achievement Test (PAT) (r = 0.70), Locus of Control Scale (LOCS) (0.86) and Study Habit Questionnaire (SHQ) (0.89). Two (2) research questions were answered, using inferential statistics of t-test, and multiple regression analysis. Findings of the study showed that there is a relationship between locus of control and Academic Achievement [r=0.216, n=750,p= <0.01]. It was found that Locus of Control, Study Habits and Gender predicted students’ academic achievement of Students, with R=0.203, which is equivalent to 20.3%. This however indicates a poor level of prediction. R2 = 0.041, which is equivalent to 4.1%, indicating a very poor level of shared variance between the dependent variable and the independent variables. The study recommends the adoption of the instructional methods that will enhance students’ locus of control and the promotion of good study habits among senior secondary school physics students. Governments, education administrators, and school authorities should consider the joint interactive influence of locus of control, study habits and gender when designing programs for physics.
  • Research as Informal and Mutual Learning: Reflections on Two Feminist Studies in Nigeria.

    Mejiuni, Olutoyin (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2013-10-04)
    Although all research involves knowledge production processes; research activities that explore the real life experiences of adult participants are also learning or educational interactions in and of themselves. This article focuses on the author's reflections on two feminist studies that she carried out in Nigeria that support this position. These educational interactions are reflected in her discussion of the framework on which her studies are based, the context of these studies, the identity politics of participants, and the enhancement and limitations (informal and mutual) learning among many participants and the researcher as a participant-observer.
  • Effect of Self-Regulated Learning Strategy on students’ achievement in Basic Science in Makurdi Local Government, Benue State, Nigeria

    Jirgba, Christy Mbakohol; Bur, Joy Iember (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-12-27)
    This study examined the effects of self-regulated learning instructional strategy on students’ achievement in basic science among Upper Basic 2 in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State. The study employed non-equivalent group pre-test-post-test quasi experimental design. The population of the study was 638 upper basic school levels. The sample for this study was 128 students from six co-educational schools within Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The instrument used for data collection was Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT) and was trial tested using Kuder-Richardson (K-R, 20) formula to determine the reliability coefficient of BSAT which was found to be 0.99. Descriptive statistics of means and standard deviation were used to answer all the research questions and inferential statistics of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test all the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level. The results of the study showed that demonstration method enhanced students’ achievement in basic science better than self-regulated strategy. There is no significant difference between the mean achievement score of students taught basic science using self-regulated learning strategy and those taught using demonstration method. There was no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught basic science using self-regulate learning strategy. Basic science Teachers should not only use demonstration method to teach but also allow the student to actively participate in the learning. This can foster confidence in the students and enhance better achievement in basic science.
  • Role of parents in school management: A focus on decision making and accountability in resource provision in pre-primary schools in Embu County, Kenya

    WANJAU, IRERI JEREMIAH; Begi, Nyakwara (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-12-26)
    There is a link between availability of resources and quality of education in schools. This is because children who are exposed to sufficient resources in schools develop positive self-concept and perform better in all curricular areas. This study was designed to explore the influence of parents’ involvement in decision making by the school boards of management on the adequacy of resources in pre-primary schools in Embu County. The study was guided by Systems theory of management. The dependent variable was adequacy of resources in pre-primary schools, while the independent variables were involvement of parents in decision making process and accountability of school management to parents. Results from data analysis revealed that resources available in most of the pre-primary schools were inadequate. It was also apparent that parental involvement in decision making process and accountability of school management on use of resources influenced the adequacy of resources in pre-primary schools.
  • Institutional conditions for preparing critically reflective TEFL teachers in the PGDT Program of three Ethiopian universities

    Danbi, Roba; Tadesse, Dereje (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-12-26)
    This paper assesses the role played by the institutional context in the preparation of critically reflective TEFL teachers in the Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching (PGDT) program of Dilla, Haramaya, and Hawasa Universities, Ethiopia. It examines the extent to which structured opportunities for reflection are used in the three institutions. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed for collecting information regarding reflective practice in the PGDT program of the three universities. Multilevel mixed-method sampling techniques were utilized to select participants. Data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation, and interpreted using simple statistical analysis and descriptive narrative approach. The study shows that most of the participants lack sufficient theoretical and practical knowledge of reflective practice. It shows that structured opportunities for reflection were not created for student teachers to practice reflection. The researchers, therefore, recommend that the government, curriculum designers, teacher education institution, and teacher educators create a common understanding about the goal of the program, and deliberately setup some structured opportunities to promote reflection in the institutions.
  • Teaching efficacy beliefs of Ghanaian basic school teachers and their subject specializations

    Boateng, Philip; Arhin, Ato Kwamina; Sekyere, Frank Owusu; Koto, Asare; Adarkwah, Samuel Nti (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-11-27)
    This study explores personal teaching efficacy beliefs of basic school teachers in Ghana undergoing recertification to upgrade their qualification. The study examines whether the personal teaching efficacy of the teachers is affected by their subject specialisation. A descriptive survey design was employed for the study. Data for the study was obtained from a total of 185 in-service teachers selected randomly from a group of teachers who were undergoing recertification from diploma to bachelor degree in basic education in a teacher education university in Ghana. Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) was adapted and used to measure in-service teachers’ personal teaching efficacy beliefs. The findings of the study showed that in-service teachers have a high sense of personal teaching efficacy.  The study also revealed that in-service teachers’ level of self-efficacy was not affected by their subject specialization.
  • East African Higher Education and the limitations of institutional reforms: A case study of selected public universities

    Sanga, Philipo (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-11-27)
    Globally, universities are engaged in various aspects of reforms to improve their outlook and relevance. In East Africa, despite the similarities in many dimensions of socio-economic conditions, universities vary in terms of focus and extent of engagement in educational reforms. In order to examine this phenomenon more closely, three purposely-selected East African public universities were studied. Analysis of related documents as complemented by responses from key officials of these institutions revealed several findings: the University of Dar es Salaam’s reforms seemed to conform more to characteristics of competitiveness-driven reforms, the University of Nairobi exhibits equity-driven reform, and Makerere University practises finance-driven reforms. Furthermore, the findings register limitations of effective institutional reforms such as massification of higher education, infringement of university autonomy, emerging technologies, paradox of internationalization, and the incapacity to cater to holistic students’ welfare. The study concluded that, despite the myriad of limitations that the universities face, they have numerous opportunities which if efficiently utilized will enable them run the higher education race more triumphantly. The paper recommends that strategies for reforms should not derail the universities from their mandate to serve their respective countries.
  • Underutilization of instructional materials for teaching and learning of Chemistry in Nigerian secondary schools: Ohafia Education Zone, Abia State’s Example.

    Obiyo, Ngozi (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-11-27)
    This study investigated the factors associated with underutilization of instructional materials for teaching and learning of Chemistry in Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised 86 Chemistry teachers and 1,180 Senior Secondary 2 (SS2) Chemistry students including those with special needs in the 86 public secondary schools in Ohafia Education Zone, Abia State in southeast geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The sample size was 456 respondents of 57 Chemistry teachers and 399 SS 2 Chemistry students selected through multi-stage sampling procedure. The data collection was by questionnaire and Cronbach Alpha was applied in computing the reliability estimate of 0.97. The findings indicated that the inability of teachers to improvise and their lack of manipulative skills, among others, are factors militating against the utilization of instructional materials. The researchers recommended the necessity for adequate provision of instructional materials in the schools and for teachers to ensure that these materials are effectively utilized. Students with special needs should be catered for based on their individualized education program as stipulated by the National Policy on Education in inclusive settings.
  • Munsaka, E., & Kalinde, B. (2017) Laying the foundation for optimal outcomes in Early Childhood, University of Zambia Press, Lusaka, 172 pp. (A5), $12.00 (paperback), ISBN 978-9982-02-099-1

    Walubita, Gabriel (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-10-02)
    Although the provision of quality early childhood education has been acknowledged as important both in the local and international development literature, there are few books that have been written on early childhood education in Zambia. The current review of a 161 paged A5 paperback bound book entitled “laying the foundation for optimal outcomes in early childhood education” co-authored by Ecloss Munsaka and  Bibian Kalinde is one of the first attempts to scrutinise latest resources on early childhood education challenges and prospects in Zambia. The review is timely as it responds to the recent integration of early childhood education in the mainstream Zambian education system. The review has critically examined chapters’ one up to six. The implications of the book in early childhood education practice in Zambia have been discussed.
  • Exploring the Effectiveness of Informal Apprenticeship in a Community of Practice: A Case Study of Katwe, Kampala-Uganda.

    Irene, Aheisibwe; Kintu, Denis (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-10-01)
     Artisans trained in Katwe are capable of doing various technical tasks such as to operate, service, repair and fabricate various equipment and tools. In this study, we set out to find out the effective methods used for training. We employed a qualitative approach to collect data, analyze and present findings. The methods commonly used are; practicing through trial and error, observations, mentoring and coaching, discussions, and by real-world problem-solving. Challenges include: high cost of materials, electricity and little time for training. We concluded that the training methods used can be incorporated in the formal curriculum to improve competence.
  • Effect of Student Teams Achievement Division and Think-Pair-Share on Students' Achievement in Reading Comprehension

    Ugwu, Eucharia Okwudilichukwu (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2019-10-01)
    AbstractThe study investigated the effect of two cooperative learning strategies, Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) and Think-Pair-Share (TPS) on senior secondary school students’ achievement in reading comprehension in Vandeikya Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria. A total of 78 students (43 males and 35 females), drawn from three secondary schools participated in the study. Experimental and control conditions were randomly assigned to the three intact classes: EG1 (STAD), EG2 (TPS) and CG (Control Group). The instrument used was Reading Comprehension Achievement Test (r=0.784). Data were analyzed using Mean, Standard Deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The results show higher achievement gains for students in the EG1 and EG2 over those of the CG, but not across gender. The findings support the existing evidence on the efficacy of cooperative learning over the traditional teaching method. English language teachers will therefore find the two techniques useful in teaching reading comprehension.   Keywords: cooperative learning, Student Teams-Achievement Divisions, Think-Pair-Share, academic achievement, reading comprehension      
  • Students’ Perceptions on Physical Education Teachers’ Compliance with the Professional Code of Ethics and Conduct in Tanzania

    Mabagala, Stephen (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2016-07-02)
    The nature of Physical Education (PE) is grounded in movements, games and sports; this lends itself to a high rate of interaction between PE teachers and students. As such, PE teachers need to be aware and comply with their professional code of ethics and conduct (PCEC) in their relationship with students during theory and practical lessons as well as during interschool competititons and outside school contexts. The idea of PE teachers' compliance with PCEC in Tanzania has not been widely investigated, so this study is rare and important to the field. The purpose of the study was to determine the perception of students on PE teachers' compliance with PCEC in Tanzania. The study utilized descriptive survey design and was conducted in secondary schools and teachers’ colleges that had PE and sport programs. Purposive sampling was adopted to select PE students and data were collected through a questionnaire. Participants were 720 students who were either studying PE or participating in school sports. It was concluded that PE students perceive their teachers as having a high level of compliance with the PCEC and their perception is influenced by their level of education. It was recommended that there is a need to improve and sustain PE programmes in schools and colleges, emphasize training in the codes for teachers, and moral education for students. There is also a need to improve teacher-student-relationship and school-community partnerships through sports. Further study should be conducted to determine unethical behavior in teacher-student relationships in the context of school sport.  

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