African Journal of Teacher Education (AJOTE) is a forum for examining, discussing, and publicising local, national, regional and trans/continental policies, practices, experiments and research on the training, preparation, hiring, and retention of teachers for all levels and tiers of Africa’s education sector.

Recent Submissions

  • Values-Based Physical Education and Teacher Education in South Africa

    Jones, Cherese Farrah; Rouw, CJ (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-07-20)
    This qualitative research presents PE (Physical Education) teacher training workshops (TTW) which were developed and evaluated through the teachers’ feedback and reflections. Its goal was to create a PE programme enriched with the values of Olympism and Ubuntuism based on the idea that values-based education offers an investment in individual and societal improvement by implementing a values framework. Participatory action research was used to determine how data was collected, analysed, and presented on an ongoing, cyclical basis. The theoretical perspectives of the experiential learning theory and the cooperative learning theory were applied to teaching PE during the in-service physical education TTW. Ten PE teachers from five schools in the Tshwane District of South Africa participated as they best informed the research question and enhanced their understanding of the phenomenon under study. The TTW assisted in building and supporting PE pedagogical knowledge as teachers critically reflected on the diversity and inclusivity of their PE class context. An examination of the wide variety of teaching strategies, specifically used during teachable moments, that were employed throughout this study could be linked to the clarification of the values of Olympism and Ubuntuism. This research developed material for PE, which underpins the set of values of Olympism and Ubuntuism as core values that were modeled by teachers and guided their work. The TTW in a values-based PE programme builds and supports the teachers’ pedagogical knowledge to plan, deliver and access quality PE. Participatory action research and its reflective practice positively influenced the teachers' PE practice as it assisted the researchers and the participating teachers in a collective, self-reflective, inquiry.
  • Implementation of Teaching Practicum for Primary School Teachers: China, Cambodia and Malawi Case Studies

    Wei, Liang; Gondwe, Foster; Sok, Saran (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-07-19)
    This paper reports findings of a qualitative study that compared the implementation of teaching practicum for primary school teachers in China, Cambodia and Malawi. The study used semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data sources included policy documents, interviews and literature. The systems theory was employed to make explicit the implementation of teaching practicum, including processes and challenges. Findings show different approaches of teaching practicum in the three countries determined by different environmental expectations, all emphasizing providing student teachers with diverse learning experiences. The study also sheds light on some of the challenges of teaching practicum. These findings underpin the importance of local school authorities in ensuring effective teaching practicum.
  • Teacher Education Students’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Retooling the Mentorship Process Within Schools of Education in Kenya

    Opiyo , Rose Atieno (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-06-30)
    The impact of globalization has brought changes to education which requires teachers to demonstrate practical pedagogical wisdom in critical features of teaching, namely: the subject matter being taught, the classroom context, and the physical and psychological characteristics of the students, that is, Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). High level of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) leads to delivery of high-quality instruction in today’s highly contextualized classroom settings and has the potential of producing learners who are prepared for a competitive society. However, teachers’ lack of PCK has been identified as a pervasive problem all over the world. In Kenya, it has been highly linked to the recurrence of poor performance in local and internal competitive examinations, poor attitudes in some subjects, and lack of motivation for continuous learning among school-age children along the education continuum. Even so, the voice of student teachers and that of the school practice advisors, at the center and apex of this mentorship process in the Universities, has been largely ignored in transformative teacher education discourse. Guided by literature on transformative teacher education, student teacher mentorship, and reflective pedagogy, this paper presents the perspectives of 50 Student Teachers (STs) and 10 School Practice Advisors. STs confidence in special teaching methods courses, pedagogical content competence in teaching both independently and collaboratively, key areas of concern for PCK improvement, and practical strategies for PCK mentorship were the focus. Based on a qualitative and an interpretive research paradigm, the sentiments of 50 STs who participated in the May-August, 2017 School Practice as well as the views of 10 School Practice Advisors (SPAs) from the School Education (SEDU) of Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology were sought. Based on four domains of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) which include  Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK), Knowledge of Curriculum (KoC) and Knowledge of Learners (KoL), and Knowledge of Pedagogies (KoP), the paper provides insights for teacher educators and University Management on areas that need further improvement and strategies for developing beginning teachers’ PCK practices.
  • Socio-economic and Household Characteristics Associated with Work-Family Conflict among Female Primary School Teachers in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Nnubia, Uju; Ibeanu, Vivienne; Okechukwu, Franca (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-07-01)
    This study focused on the socio-economic and household characteristics associated with work-family conflict among female primary school teachers in Enugu state, Nigeria. Cross-sectional and correlational study design were used to collect data from 2428 female primary school teachers in Enugu state, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-economic and household characteristics, while Work and Family Conflict Scale was used to assess work-family conflict in the dimensions of work to family, family to work and overall work and family interference. Analyses were performed using IBM-SPSS version 23 software. Descriptive data were presented as frequencies and percentages, while Chi square was used to test the hypotheses at p < 0.05. Result showed that 23% of the respondents experienced work-family conflict with higher rate (29.9%) of work to family conflict than 25.1% of family to work conflict.  Higher salary, urban location, living in ≥ 2-bedroom apartment and using communal toilet and bathroom at home were socio-economic factors significantly (p < 0.05) associated with increase in all the dimensions of work-family conflict. On the other hand, household characteristics associated with higher work-family conflict include; having dependent children, age of oldest child > 12 years old, caring for chronically ill family members, and uneasy accessibility of household water supply. Caring for the elderly and having house helps were associated with increased work to family conflict while household size was not found a factor in any dimension of work-family conflict.
  • How the Learning Environment Influences Bullying: The Case of Two Universities in Ghana

    Tay, Emmanuel Mensah Kormla; Zamore, Stephen (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-06-30)
    Organisational climates determine the experiences, well-being, and output of people. In response to a growing concern about bullying and victimisation at universities, this study examined students’ perception of the university learning environment concerning their experience of various negative behaviours and victimisation at two public universities in Ghana. The study is a cross-sectional survey of 751 respondents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and regression analysis indicate how perceptions of the universities’ learning environment are related to students’ experiences. With an inverse relationship between students’ perception of the learning environment and their experience of various negative behaviours and victimisation, the study suggests that awareness of anti-bullying rules, which are strictly, fairly, and consistently enforced through participatory democratic principles, will be essential to ensure a positive psychosocial learning environment.
  • Mathematics Teachers’ Use of WhatsApp Groups as a Platform for Continuous Professional Development in Tanzania

    Kihwele, Jimmy Ezekiel; Mgata, Fred (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-06-30)
    Updating mathematics teachers’ pedagogical skills and content knowledge is inevitable as the trend of students’ performance in Tanzania is alarming. Currently, social media have been one of the strategies for elevating mathematics teachers’ professional competencies through online learning communities. The study aimed at examining how mathematics teachers use Informal WhatsApp Groups (IWGs) as one of the social media for Continued Professional Development (CPD). Key study questions are what are the perceptions of mathematics teachers on the benefits of IWGs in CPD? How do mathematics teachers use IWGs for CPD-related activities? What are the challenges they encounter? And what Mathematics teachers recommend for better use of IWGs for CPD? Two IWGs were involved with a total of 54 mathematics teachers who are currently teaching in secondary schools. The open-ended questionnaire was shared in the IWGs, and members accepted to fill it. Ten members including those who have been in the IWGs for a longer period, those who frequently posted or asked questions, and group leaders were invited for interviews. The findings show that the IWGs have contributed to teachers developing their pedagogical skills and content knowledge through sharing experience, and materials and demonstrating teaching practices in video clips. The challenges include the problem of internet accessibility, inactiveness of members, and lack of effective criteria for evaluating the validity and reliability of information shared. The recommendation is for the authorities to set supportive policies and practices that will create enabling environments for mathematics teachers on CPD.
  • Teacher Education Students’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Retooling the Mentorship Process Within Schools of Education in Kenya: Teacher Education Students’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Retooling the Mentorship Process Within Schools of Education in Kenya

    Opiyo , Rose Atieno (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-06-30)
    The impact of globalization has brought changes to education which requires teachers to demonstrate practical pedagogical wisdom in critical features of teaching, namely: the subject matter being taught, the classroom context, and the physical and psychological characteristics of the students, that is, Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). High level of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) leads to delivery of high-quality instruction in today’s highly contextualized classroom settings and has the potential of producing learners who are prepared for a competitive society. However, teachers’ lack of PCK has been identified as a pervasive problem all over the world. In Kenya, it has been highly linked to the recurrence of poor performance in local and internal competitive examinations, poor attitudes in some subjects, and lack of motivation for continuous learning among school-age children along the education continuum. Even so, the voice of student teachers and that of the school practice advisors, at the center and apex of this mentorship process in the Universities, has been largely ignored in transformative teacher education discourse. Guided by literature on transformative teacher education, student teacher mentorship, and reflective pedagogy, this paper presents the perspectives of 50 Student Teachers (STs) and 10 School Practice Advisors. STs confidence in special teaching methods courses, pedagogical content competence in teaching both independently and collaboratively, key areas of concern for PCK improvement, and practical strategies for PCK mentorship were the focus. Based on a qualitative and an interpretive research paradigm, the sentiments of 50 STs who participated in the May-August, 2017 School Practice as well as the views of 10 School Practice Advisors (SPAs) from the School Education (SEDU) of Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology were sought. Based on four domains of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) which include  Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK), Knowledge of Curriculum (KoC) and Knowledge of Learners (KoL), and Knowledge of Pedagogies (KoP), the paper provides insights for teacher educators and University Management on areas that need further improvement and strategies for developing beginning teachers’ PCK practices.
  • Teacher Preparation in Zambia’s Expanded Core Curriculum: Challenges and Opportunities

    Simalalo, Magdalene; Gasa, Velisiwe G.; Muzata, Kenneth K. (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-07-01)
    Well-prepared teachers are a determinant in the successful implementation of expanded core curriculum. Teachers can give learners skills according to the way they are prepared. Learners with visual impairments in special schools and students at tertiary level manifest deficits in critical skills required in academic success and transition in general. The nature of education of their teachers and challenges encountered during teacher preparation were not well established. The present study explored challenges faced in the preparation of teachers of learners with visual impairments in expanded core curriculum. Purposive sampling was used to select twenty-two teachers, two special education curriculum specialists and three Teacher educators. Open-ended questionnaires were used to collect data from teachers of learners with visual impairments and semi structured interviews were conducted with teacher educators and curriculum specialists. The findings indicated that teacher education/preparation in ECC was insufficient, and the institutions concentrated on braille literacy; and orientation and mobility. The remaining skills in ECC were ignored. Preparation incorporated few practical sessions and was highly theoretical. The major challenges among others were time constraints; insufficient resources in education; enrolments of student teachers; discrepancy between education and implementation; methodological issues. The opportunities were available to improve education were: employ more staff; embark on specialised education; advocacy and collaboration: offering continuous professional development for teachers. The study highlights the nature of preparation of teachers of learners with visual impairment. The teacher education institutions need to realign the curriculum through collaborative approach with other stakeholders so that teachers can effectively deliver skills to the learners.
  • Effectiveness of Guided and Open Inquiry Instructional Strategies on Science Process Skills and Self-Efficacy of Biology Students in Osun State, Nigeria

    Owolade, Adeyinka Olayemi; Oladipupo, Popoola Oluwasegun; Kareem, Adeyinka Oluwaseun; Salami, Marie Onovroghene (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-06-30)
    The study determined the effectiveness of guided and open inquiry instructional strategies on the science process skills of students taught Biology in senior secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. It also compared the self-efficacy of students taught Biology using guided inquiry with those taught Biology using open inquiry instructional strategies in senior secondary school in Osun State. The goal was to provide empirical information on the effectiveness of guided and open inquiry strategies on students’ learning outcome in Biology. The study adopted the non-equivalent pretest posttest quasi-experimental research design. Two research instruments were used to collect data for the study namely, (i) Biology Process Skills Observation checklist (BPSOC) and (ii) Self-efficacy Rating Scale (SeRS). Data collected were analyzed using appropriate inferential statistics of analysis of Covariance. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the science process skills of Biology students exposed to Open Inquiry and those exposed to guided inquiry strategy (F= 0.785, p>0.05). The results also showed that a significant difference existed in the self-efficacy of students taught using Guided Inquiry and Open Inquiry strategies (F = 11.64, p < 0.05) as those exposed to Open Inquiry had the better self-efficacy score than the other groups as shown in the mean difference between open and guided inquiry strategies. The study concluded that Open inquiry strategy was more effective in improving the self-efficacy of the respondents but was not effective in improving the science process skills of respondents in the study area.
  • Competency-Based Assessment in Entrepreneurship Education in Kenya’s Tertiary Institutions

    Moindi, Rose; Nyatuka, Benard (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-06-30)
    Education systems worldwide are shifting to knowledge-based curricula with emphasis on the learners’ acquisition of relevant competencies. Entrepreneurship education was introduced in tertiary institutions in Kenya in 1999 to produce entrepreneurs, including preparing graduates for the world of work. However, limited studies have focused on the assessment of acquisition of such competencies, especially in entrepreneurship education.  This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of assessment modes used in entrepreneurship education in imparting requisite competencies among students in tertiary institutions in the country. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design. A total of 412 students selected from three tertiary institutions were involved in the study. Data were collected using questionnaires and analysed quantitatively using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study showed that written examinations were the most commonly used mode of assessment of entrepreneurship education, followed by projects and attachment. The study revealed that there is no significant difference in the influence of the mode of assessment as adopted in the different tertiary institutions in fostering the acquisition of competencies (F Ratio<F Critical) (0.835<3.02). However, when the requisite competencies were compared, the study showed that the mode of assessment adopted enhanced acquisition of ideas and opportunities (0.313 units) and resources (0.364 units) competencies more compared to the into-action competencies (0.249 units). To enhance the acquisition of relevant competencies, the study recommends adoption of different appropriate modes of assessment in entrepreneurship education.
  • The Use of Peers in Assessment for Learning: A Case Study of Trainee Teachers at Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE), Zimbabwe

    Mudavanhu, Young; Mutseekwa, Christopher (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2022-06-30)
    The study was an exploration of trainee teachers’ understanding, perceptions of, and confidence in the use of peers in assessment for learning (AfL) at Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe. Trainee teachers were enrolled in a programme that used a blended model of teaching and learning between February and June 2021. Trainees participated in online seminars and peer assessment in a course on curriculum development and completed questionnaire eliciting their attitudes toward peer assessment. A mixed-methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies was adopted. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, mean item scores and the summated scores for the three constructs of confidence, benefits of and threats to peer assessment. Open-ended items were analysed qualitatively and emerging themes were reported. Summated scores of 4, meant trainees had positive attitudes toward peer assessment and believed in numerous benefits of using peer assessment. A summated mean score of 3 for threats to peer assessment meant trainee teachers had neutral views to the construct. Conflicting messages were evident. The same trainees who believed that peer assessment was useful still doubted sincerity of peers and preferred teacher assessment. Further research, using a larger population and sample and interviews to probe doubts in peer assessment, is recommended.
  • Enhancing Students’ Attitude towards Biology through the Integration of Traditional Medicine and 5E’s Learning Cycle

    Shishigu, Aweke; Ali, Teshager; Belay, Solomon; Edessa, Sutuma (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-12-26)
    The study investigated the effect of integrating traditional medicine (TM) concepts with grade 9th microorganism and disease topics on students’ attitude towards biology. The study used a quasi-experimental pretest, posttest non-equivalent group design. two intact classes were selected in Chiro district of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The first class belonged to the treatment group where TM contents are integrated through 5E’s learning cycle with the topic Microorganism and Disease and the second was assigned as comparison group learning the same biology unit on Microorganisms and Disease using the usual approach. Biological Attitude Questionnaires (BAQ) was administered for both groups as pre- and post-tests. The findings showed that the integration of TM with the school biology enhanced students’ attitude towards biology as compared with teaching the topics without integration.
  • Analysis of Item Writing Flaws in a Communications Skills Test in a Ghanaian University

    ARHIN, ATO KWAMINA; Essuman , Jonathan; Arhin, Ekua (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-12-24)
    Adhering to the rules governing the writing of multiple-choice test items will ensure quality and validity. However, realizing this ideal could be challenging for non-native English language teachers and students. This is especially so for non-native English language teachers because developing test items in a language that neither they nor their students use as their mother tongue raises a multitude of issues related to quality and validity. A descriptive study on this problem was conducted at a Technical University in Ghana which focused on item writing flaws in a communication skills test. The use of multiple-choice test in Ghanaian universities has increased over the last decade due to increasing student intake. A 20-item multiple-choice test in communication skills was administered to 110 students. The test items were analyzed using a framework informed by standard item writing principles based on the revised taxonomy of multiple-choice item-writing guides by Haladyna, Downing and Rodriguez (2002). The facility and discrimination index (DI) was calculated for all the items. In total, 60% of the items were flawed based on standard items writing principles. The most violated guideline was wording stems negatively. Pearson correlation analysis indicated a weak relationship between the difficulty and discrimination indices. Using the discrimination indices of the flawed items showed that 84.6 % of them had discrimination indices below the optimal level of 0.40 and above. The lowest DI was recorded by an item with which was worded negatively. The mean facility of the test was 45%. It was observed that the flawed items were more difficult than the non-flawed items. The study suggested that test items must be properly reviewed before they are used to assess students’ knowledge.
  • Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of the Relevance of Teacher Professional Ethics in Contemporary Lesotho

    Tlali, Tebello Violet (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-12-11)
    Previous research suggests that new teachers have more negative ethical perceptions than their senior counterparts. However, there is limited research on teachers’ perceptions regarding the relevance of professional ethics in the contemporary world. Hence this study sought to explore the extent to which pre-service teachers in Lesotho consider professional ethics to be relevant. A qualitative approach was adopted and Kohlberg’s (1987) moral development theory was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Data were generated with the use of both semi-structured and focus-group interviews. Forty-six (n 46) final-year Bachelor of Education (BEd) students were purposively selected to take part in this study. Sixteen (16) were interviewed individually, while 30 were interviewed in three focus-groups of ten participants each. The findings are that the participating pre-service teachers had mixed feelings about the relevance of professional ethics of teachers. Some emphasised the importance of a teachers’ code of ethics while others indicated that some of the regulations were outdated. The position taken in this paper is that teacher professional ethics are timeless. These are meant to protect the interests of different stakeholders in education as well as the image of the teaching profession.
  • Integrating Indigenous Knowledge and Culturally based Activities in South African Mathematics Classrooms

    Naidoo, Jayaluxmi (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-12-11)
    Culturally based activities embedded within indigenous knowledge, in general, may be used to support the teaching of mathematics in multicultural classes. The article reflects on research that has been conducted with twenty-five post-graduate students studying Mathematics Education at one university in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. These post-graduate students were also practicing mathematics teachers at schools. The study explored the use of indigenous knowledge and culturally based activities by post-graduate students in schools while teaching mathematical concepts. The theory of Realistic Mathematics Education framed this qualitative, interpretive study which used a questionnaire, lesson observations and semi-structured interviews to generate data. Qualitative data were analysed inductively and thematically. The findings reveal that the participants needed to understand indigenous knowledge to integrate culturally based activities in mathematics lessons. Secondly, culturally based activities established on indigenous knowledge scaffolded mathematics lessons and promoted the understanding of mathematical concepts to make learning more meaningful and relevant. Thirdly, this study provides examples of good practice to support teachers in integrating classroom activities and activities outside the classroom, ensuring that mathematical concepts learned in classrooms are not done in isolation but take into account learners’ authentic experiences in various settings. Finally, by integrating indigenous knowledge and culturally based activities in the mathematics curriculum, learners interacted and engaged more freely within the educational context. Similar studies could be conducted at universities internationally. Implications for mathematics teachers, mathematics teacher educators and mathematics curriculum developers globally are discussed.
  • Emotional Intelligence, Social Networking Skills and Online Counselling Communication Effectiveness Among Students of OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Gabriel, Eli Segbeyon; Adebowale, Olusegun Fatai; Omotehinse, Oluwaseun Solomon (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-12-11)
    With a view to providing empirical information on the factors that influence online counselling communication among Nigerian university students, this study investigated the influence of emotional intelligence and social networking skills on the effectiveness of online counselling communication among students of Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU). Through a descriptive survey research design, the study sampled 100 students purposively from users of the University online counselling platform, on the basis of being able to have established complete counselling interaction with any of the counsellors online during the harmattan and rain semesters of 2017/2018 session (or over a period of 12 months.). The results showed that 78.0%, 19.0% and 3.0% of the students demonstrated high, moderate and low levels of online counselling communication effectiveness respectively and that emotional intelligence has significant influence on online communication effectiveness (β = 0.790, p < 0.05). The results further showed that social networking skills has no significant influence on online communication effectiveness (F = 3.457, p > 0.05) and no significant interaction effect of emotional intelligence and social networking skill was found on online counselling communication effectiveness (F = 0.546, p > 0.05). The study concluded that the only factor that influenced online counselling communication effectiveness among the students under study is emotional intelligence
  • Teacher’s Use of Instructional Materials in Teaching and Learning Mathematics in Rwandan Primary Schools

    Umuhoza, Clementine; Uworwabayeho, Alphonse (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-12-11)
    Teaching and learning mathematics is easier, more interesting, more enjoyable, and more closely connected to real life applications with the use of instructional materials like textbooks, manipulatives, technology tools, and (physical or digital) models. This study investigated the impact of instructional aids on classroom interaction through semi-structured interviews and classroom observations of 15 mathematics teachers from five primary schools in Rulindo district, in Rwanda’s Northern Province. Interviews were analyzed thematically, and classroom observations were analyzed descriptively. The analysis indicates a lack of instructional materials for teaching mathematics overall. Most teachers use course books, but report that there are not enough books available. Use of ICT is limited due to the lack of power supply in some schools. Teachers in this study either did not use available instructional materials at all, or, if they were used, they were not used appropriately.  Teachers also did not allow students to actively use the materials; thus, students were not given the opportunity to enhance their active learning and participate in constructing their knowledge of the mathematics content.
  • Perception and Management of Stress by South African Foundation Phase Teachers

    Govender, Sumeshni; Mabuza, Pertunia Thobile (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-12-11)
    The prevalence and management of stressors experienced by rural-based foundation phase teachers in South Africa were examined in this study. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used to gain more insight into stressors experienced by teachers. A questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended questions was used to collect data from n=119 participants. The results of the study indicated that many foundation phase teachers experienced a wide variety of stressors. There was also an indication that whilst some teachers do have the necessary skills to cope with the stressors that they experienced, within their teaching and learning environment, using various techniques such as: exercise, spirituality and planning other participants struggled to cope and required support. Recommendations were made in order to assist those teachers who were unable to manage the stressors they experienced, limitations of the study discussed and avenues for further research are also presented.
  • Barriers and Enablers to Inclusive Education in Mauritius: Perceptions of Secondary School Educational Practitioners

    Abdoula-Dhuny, Nazia (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-12-11)
    Advocated as an educational philosophy to tackle exclusion, inclusive education (IE) is now a worldwide trend. Despite the well-acknowledged benefits of inclusion, educational practitioners have several difficulties which act as significant setbacks in operationalising inclusion in practice. Given its novelty in Mauritius, IE implementation is not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to explore the perceptions of secondary school educational practitioners on certain aspects of inclusive education, namely the academic profile of students with special education needs encountered by secondary school educators and rectors, the difficulties faced when dealing with them, and the barriers and enablers to inclusive education. It involved a quantitative descriptive research design. Data were collected from 588 secondary educators and 42 rectors using a specifically designed questionnaire. Following the analysis of data, respondents confirmed the presence of children with special education needs in their classrooms. While respondents indicated that the majority of students with special education needs had an academic profile of the same level of age-matched peers, they reported difficulties encountered with these learners in terms of deficits in attention, participation and behavioural problems. The main barriers identified were the lack of training in special education and the lack of proper infrastructure. Findings revealed training and knowledge in special education, the availability of proper infrastructure, support in terms of teaching aids, specialised equipment and teaching assistants as the main enabling factors. Training is therefore recommended to build competency of educators and rectors in inclusive practices. Appropriate infrastructure and support in terms of educational materials and support personnel should also be provided.
  • Factors in Teachers’ Awareness of Pedagogical Gestures as Enhancement Technique Among English Teachers in Secondary Schools in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Iwe, Nkechinyere (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2021-06-19)
    The study seeks to ascertain Nigerian language teachers’ awareness of pedagogical gestures as an enhancement to teaching and whether this awareness is influenced by teaching location and teacher qualification. The study adopts the survey research design with a sample size of 262 drawn using multi-staged sampling techniques. The Z-test method was used in testing the hypothesis of the study.  It was discovered that there was high mean response of teachers on the awareness of pedagogical gestures. There were significant differences in the mean response of urban/rural teachers and no significant differences in the mean response of graduate/non-graduate teacher’s awareness of pedagogical gestures as enhancement technique. Our conclusion is that pedagogical gestures are indispensable in lesson delivery and that their pedagogic values are gained through awareness of them as enhancement technique.  

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