AbstractPetrarchan sonnets are often discussed in terms which reflect Laura Mulvey's work on the gaze, either as identification with the idealized object, the beloved, or her fragmentation by the poet's defensive description. Devotional sonnets written during the 1590s, however, cannot do this about the divine object of their love. Robert Southwell, Thomas Lodge, William Alabaster, and Henry Constable handle the features of the secular sonnet in a deliberately literal way, to reflect the doctrinal position.
Sullivan, Ceri <http://orca.cf.ac.uk/view/cardiffauthors/A1500876V.html> 2000. The physiology of penance in weeping texts of 1590s. Cahiers Elisabethains 57 (1) , pp. 31-48. 10.7227/CE.57.1.3 <http://dx.doi.org/10.7227/CE.57.1.3>