Spatial continuities and discontinuities in two successive demographic transitions
AbstractThis is a study of how the synergisms between cultural and structural factors, which played a major role during the historical fertility and nuptiality transition (first demographic transition or FDT), have continued to condition demographic innovations connected to the â€œsecond demographic transitionâ€ (SDT). The continuity or discontinuity from the â€œfirstâ€ to the â€œsecondâ€ demographic transition is studied for spatial aggregates over more than a century in two national contexts, i.e., Belgium and Spain. Special attention is paid to the role of successive secularization waves in shaping the geographical patterns of both transitions. The study also shows that the maps of the two aspects of the SDT, i.e., the â€œpostponementâ€ and the â€œnon-conformismâ€ transitions respectively, are shaped by different determinants. Explanations are offered using the â€œReady, Willing, and Ableâ€ paradigm, which allows us to uncover the different conditioning and limiting factors involved. The â€œnon-conformistâ€ transitions (control of marital fertility during the FDT and rise of cohabitation and non-conventional family formation during the SDT) more closely mirror the history of secularization and the â€œWillingnessâ€ condition, whereas the fertility postponement aspect of the SDT mainly reflects female education and employment, or the â€œReadinessâ€ condition. This generalization holds in both countries. However, in Belgium spatial continuity from FDT to SDT is connected to stable patterns of secularization, whereas in Spain it is linked to long standing differences with respect to female literacy and education.
cohabitation, demographic transition, fertility control, fertility postponement, second demographic transition, secularization