African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, namely injury and violence.

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The Globethics.net library contains articles of African Safety Promotion as of vol. 1(2002) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Community asset mapping for violence prevention: A comparison of views in Erijaville, South Africa and Memphis, USA

    Cutts, Teresa; Olivier, Jill; Lazarus, Sandy; Taliep, Naiema; Cochrane, James R.; Seedat, Mohamed; van Reenen, Ricardo; Hendricks, Cathy; Carelse, Haseena (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2016-11-16)
    In the context of addressing challenges relating to ongoing interpersonal violence, this article conducts a comparative analysis of findings from a community asset mapping process drawing responses from 100 community participants across the two sites of Erijaville, South Africa and Memphis, Tennessee in the USA. Specifically, we describe the similarities and differences across sites regarding community assets linked to safety and peace promotion, with a particular emphasis on tangible and intangible factors relevant to the promotion of safety and peace. The findings reveal a major emphasis on ‘intangible’ factors that relate to the promotion of safety  and peace, including personal values and behaviour (such as love, compassion and prayer), family relationships (such as family socialisation, care and supervision, role modelling, and peer guidance), and community connectedness (including community hope and trust, and the development of ethical leadership). The findings suggest that religious assets and spiritual capacity constitute important resources, which should be more intentionally mobilised and enhanced to promote safety and peace. This constitutes an important challenge in relation to violence prevention in both South Africa and the USA.Keywords: community-based participatory research, community asset mapping, interpersonal violence, violence prevention, positive forms of masculinity, peace and safety, religious assets, spiritual capacity
  • ‘… a huge monster that should be feared and not done’: Lessons learned in sexuality education classes in South Africa

    Shefer, T; Kruger, L; Macleod, C; Baxen, J; Vincent, L (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2016-05-26)
    Research has foregrounded the way in which heterosexual practices for many young people are not infrequently bound up with violence and unequal transactional power relations. The Life Orientation sexuality education curriculum in South African schools has been viewed as a potentially valuable space to work with young people on issues of reproductive health, gender and sexual norms and relations. Yet, research has illustrated that such work may not only be failing to impact on more equitable sexual practices between young men and women, but may also serve to reproduce the very discourses and practices that the work aims to challenge. Cultures of violence in youth sexuality are closely connected to prevailing gender norms and practices which, for example, render women as passive victims who are incapable of exercising sexual agency and men as inherently sexually predatory. This paper analyses the talk of Grade 10 learners in nine diverse schools in two South African provinces, the Eastern Cape and the Western Cape, to highlight what ‘lessons’ these young people seem to be learning about sexuality in Life Orientation classes. We find that these lessons foreground cautionary, negative and punitive messages, which reinforce, rather than challenge, normative gender roles. ‘Scare’ messages of danger, damage and disease give rise to presumptions of gendered responsibility for risk and the requirement of female restraint in the face of the assertion of masculine desire and predation. We conclude that the role which sexuality education could play in enabling young women in particular to more successfully negotiate their sexual relationships to serve their own needs, reproductive health and safety, is undermined by regulatory messages directed at controlling young people, and young women in particular – and that instead, young people’s sexual agency has to be acknowledged in any processes of change aimed at gender equality, anti-violence, health and well-being.Keywords: Life Orientation, sex, sexuality education, young people, heterosexual practices, gender equality, violence, health, danger.
  • Gender-based violence and the need for evidence-based primary prevention in South Africa

    Gevers, A; Jama-Shai, N; Sikweyiya, Y (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2016-05-25)
    Gender-based violence is a significant problem globally and in South Africa. The public and political discourse has been dominated by calls for increased penalties and convictions for perpetrators of various types of gender-based violence. However, these responses are unlikely to prevent such violence from occurring in the first place. Primary prevention strategies should address the underlying causes and drivers of gender-based violence in order to prevent violence and promote safer, respectful, happy relations between men and women. Through rigorous research, these factors have been identified and specific strategies based on these findings include: (a) building gender equality and challenging hegemonic masculinities; (b) challenging the widespread acceptance of violence; (c) improving conflict resolution and communication skills; (d) developing relationship-building skills; (e) reducing substance abuse; and (f) improved gun control. Each of these strategies and the evidence-base for the recommendations is discussed. Interventions that combine these strategies and are informed by research evidence during development are most likely to be effective in preventing gender-based violence on a large scale.Keywords: gender equality, masculinities, primary prevention, gender-based violence, South Africa
  • Pattern and severity of childhood unintentional injuries in Ismailia city, Egypt

    Hamid, SA; Zekry, O; Abbas, H; El-Sayed, H; Hyder, A (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2015-07-28)
    In 2009, more than 746 000 injury cases were registered in the Ministry of Health hospitals in Egypt, with an injury rate of 1 004/100 000 population. Around 38% of all injuries occur among children and young adults less than 20 years of age. Furthermore, more than 20 000 people lose their lives to injuries every year (27/100 000). However, these data lack information on injury pattern, severity, provided care and outcome of injuries, which are essential data for planning injury control programmes.The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, nature and risk factors of childhood injuries in the Suez Canal University Hospital Emergency Department.The study included a total of 551 children of 12 years of age. The most common causes of injuries among those children were falls (60%), road traffic injuries (15%) and burns (7%). The most commonly sustained injuries were fractures (23%), cuts or open wounds (21%), sprains (20%) and burns (13%). Overall injury severity scores (ISSs) were low across all injury types, except road traffic injuries (RTIs). The majority of patients were treated and discharged without disability (50.5%), while 7.4% had long-term temporary disability that lasted for more than 6 weeks, and 1.9% sustained permanent disability. There were two deaths (0.4% proportionate mortality); both of them were due to falls from a height.In conclusion, the study confirms the feasibility of documenting the burden of childhood injuries on health systems in Egypt. It also confirmed the need for tailored injury-prevention research in Egypt. The resulting data should encourage interventional trials to be conducted, appropriate injury-prevention strategies to be implemented and timely interventions to be planned.Keywords: Childhood unintentional injuries, Egypt, risk factors.
  • Sustainable safety volunteerism in the Strand, Western Cape: Volunteer identity, motivation and socio-organisational experiences

    Bulbulia, S; van Niekerk, A (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2015-07-28)
    There is a growing recognition of the relevance and even centrality of volunteerism to adequate collective responses to poverty, housing and the promotion of human rights and, more recently, safety. Volunteerism by members of poor global South communities within their own communities has, however, remained relatively neglected and undescribed. This study explored the motivations, benefits and socio-organisational experiences that a group of volunteers reported as a result of their participation in a safety-promotion project in two under-resourced communities in the Strand, in the Western Cape, South Africa. The focus of this safety-promotion project was to enhance women’s safety and health and to reduce risks of injury and violence through the implementation of safety-promotion strategies that target the prevention of priority injuries, particularly violence, traffic injury and burns. The study used a qualitative approach and is based on the completion of questionnaires and focus group discussions with volunteers and project staff. Data analysis involved the thematic analysis of the written responses by 28 volunteers and 4 project staff to a questionnaire comprising open-ended and focused questions that explored their experiences of volunteerism. The study also involved the analysis of the transcriptions of two focus group discussions subsequently held with these volunteers to clarify, further develop and verify emerging themes. The volunteers identified both self-oriented and socially altruistic motivations and benefits. These volunteers highlighted a hope and desire to advance social change and promote safety within their communities. Volunteer experiences reflected their enthusiasm to enhance both the human and social capital of their communities simultaneously. This study highlighted the development of a volunteer identity as a necessary component for the implementation of a sustainable, volunteer-based safety-promotion project.Keywords: Volunteerism, safety, identity, motivation, experiences
  • Urban and rural differences in child injury deaths in South Africa: A one-year review

    Gantchev, G; Swart, L; Laher, H; Seedat, M (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2015-07-28)
    Injury, a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children worldwide, is concentrated in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the growing rate of childhood injury in LMICs, effective prevention and control remain inadequate owing to the lack of comprehensive epidemiological information on the external causes and magnitude of this problem. This population based study examined whether the incidence and the pattern of fatal injuries among children differ in rural and urban areas of South Africa. The National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS) was used to select cases for the period of 2007. Age and gender-specific incidence rates for rural and urban children were computed for specific injury types. Following a cross-sectional method, we analysed all deaths among children below 15 years of age in Gauteng (urban) and Mpumalanga (rural) who died in 2007. For the year 2007, NIMSS recorded a total of 612 injury deaths among children in Mpumalanga (rural) and another 1 400 injury deaths among children in Gauteng (urban). Equally high overall injury death rates were found among children from Gauteng (31.7/100 000) and Mpumalanga (29.2/100 000). The study also revealed several differences with respect to the primary external causes of child injury-related deaths across the two provinces. In particular, passenger related motor vehicle deaths were more evident among children in rural areas than in urban areas, while other unintentional (non-transport-related) deaths – specifically those associated with burns – were more common among urban children than among rural children.Such differences may arise because of the many environmental and infrastructure-related differences that exist between rural and urban areas. Therefore, prevention and intervention efforts in South Africa should focus on the risk factors that are unique to urban and rural children respectively.Keywords: childhood, urban, rural, deaths
  • Safe communities and injury prevention: convergence in a global quest or an experiment in "Empowered deliberative democracy"?

    Svanström, Leif (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2006-10-09)
    No Abstract. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention Vol. 4(1) 2006: 77-86
  • Research in practice (2nd Ed), Martin Terreblance, Kevin Durrheim & Desmond Painter (editors)

    Laher, H (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2008-11-25)
    No Abstract.African Safety Promotion Vol. 5(1) 2007: pp. 120-122
  • Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger Transport Sector in Maputo, Mozambique

    L Svanström; MT Couto; S Lawoko (African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 2011-10-07)
    This cross-sectional study examined the extent, nature and risk factors of workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique. A random sample of 504 participants was selected from a population of 2 618 registered bus, minibus, and taxi drivers/conductors. The results indicated that workplace violence, psychological as well as physical, is highly prevalent among drivers/conductors, with 77% reporting ever being abused and 64% reporting being abused during the past 12 months. Particularly vulnerable groups comprised illiterate employees, bus drivers/conductors, employees with long experience, and those holding a supervisory position. In addition, a high workload was associated with an increased likelihood of exposure to workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector. This article discusses the implications of the findings for possible interventions and further research.
  • Book Review: Seasons of Hunger: Fighting Cycles of Quiet Starvation Among the World’s Rural Poor

    C van Zyl Schalekamp (African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 2011-10-07)
    Title: Seasons of hunger: Fighting cycles of quiet starvation among the world’s rural poorAuthors: Stephen Devereaux, Bapu Vaitla and Samuel Hauenstein SwanPublication Date:2008Publisher: Pluto PressISBN: 978 0 7453 2826 3 (Paperback, 148 pages)
  • Community Engagement: International Day of the Older Person 2009

    D Goldberg; Y Ally; R Lekoba; S Suffla; M Seedat (African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 2011-10-07)
    No Abstract.
  • 1St Southern African Students Psychology Conference, Gaborone, Botswana

    L Letsela; D Goldberg; Y Ally (African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 2011-10-07)
    No Abstract.
  • 9Th Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference, Melbourne, Australia

    R Ahmed; S Suffla; M Seedat (African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 2011-10-07)
    No Abstract.
  • National policy documents for violence and injury prevention

    Etienne G Krug; Richard J Waxweiler (African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 2006-10-09)
    No Abstract. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention Vol. 4(1) 2006: 34-43
  • Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: Prevalence and effect of interventions

    Pengpid, S; Peltzer, K (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2015-06-11)
    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a collaborative group of 10 countries (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) located in South-East Asia. In most ASEAN countries, the majority of road users are motorcyclists. Globally, among the 20 countries with the greatest rate of motorcycle deaths per 100,000 population, six ASEAN countries are included. A review found that across ASEAN countries, a significant proportion of motorcycle drivers did not wear a helmet; this ranged from 11–20% in Indonesia, 35–66% in Cambodia, 25–97% in Laos, 24.2–67.2% in Malaysia, 44.2%–56.3% in Thailand, and 10–70.1% in Vietnam, while rates of non-use of helmets were higher in motorcycle passengers, ranging from 25% in Vietnam, 38.1% in Malaysia, 48–80% in Indonesia, 72–81% in Thailand, and 91% in Cambodia. The effect of the introduction of helmetuse legislation for drivers and passengers was evaluated in Thailand and Vietnam, and in both evaluations, significant increases in helmet use were found compared to prior the legislation in both countries. Multisectoral or community intervention programmes in localised areas and schools in Laos and Thailand also lead to significant increases in motorcycle helmet use. The effectiveness of the enforcement of helmet laws in ASEAN countries was rated an average of 7.2 (on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 is not effective at all and 10 is highly effective), with the lowest (5) in Malaysia and the highest (10) in Brunei Duressalam. Stricter enforcement of mandatory helmet laws for two-wheeler riders (both drivers and pillion-riders) are needed. Keywords: helmet use, motorcycle, prevalence, interventions, Southeast Asia.
  • Everyday partner violence in Rwanda: The contribution of community-based sociotherapy to peaceful family life

    Richters, A; Sarabwe, E (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2015-06-11)
    Rwanda is well known for the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi. What is less known is the increase in everyday partner violence that has come about as a legacy not only from the genocide but also from the war preceding the genocide. A range of war and genocide-related factors continue to contribute to family conflict and intimate partner violence in Rwanda to this day. This raises particular challenges for interventions aimed at curbing such incidences. This article presents arguments for community-based sociotherapy as a psychosocial approach that can effectively meet these challenges. The qualitative study that informed the article was situated in the north of Rwanda. Data collection methods included interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation and informal conversations. Data were coded and categorised in relation to the main research questions. Social disconnection and mistrust as legacies of the war and genocide proved to be major issues underlying family conflict and partner violence. Sociotherapy reportedly restores trust, dignity, respect and a caring attitude among its participants, thereby facilitating the creation of a home environment in which husband and wife start to openly address their problems, cease different forms of partner violence, raise their standard of living and become role models in their neighbourhood. Community-based sociotherapy as a grassroots intervention has proven to be an effective complement to more top-down public and political responses to gender-based violence. Keywords: partner violence, family conflict, community-based sociotherapy, war, genocide, Rwanda.
  • Effectiveness of road safety education in Nigeria using a quasi-experimental trial: Findings from the Road Safety Intervention Project

    Odeyemi, KA; Dolapo, DC; Omosun, AO; Ilika, AL; Okafor, IP (University of South Africa (South Africa), 2015-06-11)
    Road traffic injuries pose a serious public health problem worldwide, especially in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a post-license road safety education intervention programme in terms of increased knowledge and self-reported behaviour among commercial minibus drivers in Lagos, Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in three phases. Participating motor parks (selected by simple random sampling) were assigned to either the intervention or control group. All eligible minibus drivers were included with no matching. Data analysis was done with Epi-info version 3.5.1. Comparison was done in terms of group driver education versus no education, and pre- versus post-intervention. Out of an estimated 500 male drivers, 407 participated in the study. Most had some form of formal education. For both groups, pre-intervention knowledge scores were poor but improved significantly post-intervention in the intervention group. None of the drivers in the intervention group had good scores but this increased to 66,1% post-intervention. Their mean score increased from 34,4 ± 9,1 to 72,3 ± 10,2. Adherence to speed limits did not improve. The control group showed no significant changes. Post-license road safety education significantly improved knowledge but not self-reported adherence to speed limits. Similar, sustainable programmes should be offered to improve commercial drivers’ poor knowledge. Further studies are needed to determine deterrent factors to behaviour change.Keywords: road safety, intervention, commercial drivers, Nigeria
  • Research and Theory Towards a National Injury Costing System?:Lessons from a Public-Private Injury Costing Pilot Study in South Africa

    G Stevens; B Bowman (African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 2011-10-07)
    South Africa has extremely high incidence rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries due to interpersonal violence, pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions, burns, falls and other unintentional causes. While the actual cost associated with these injuries remains relatively unknown, the estimated direct cost of the medical treatment, rehabilitation and administration of these victims may run into billions of rands. This public–private injury costing pilot study (hereafter the study) was conducted at a tertiary public health facility in Johannesburg, South Africa (hereafter the public facility). The study attempted to facilitate further costing capacity through skills transfers from personnel at a sentinel private health facility in Johannesburg (hereafter the private hospital) to selected personnel within the identified public facility, and through the determination of the partial baseline direct medical cost of the treatment of gun shot wounds, pedestrian–motor vehicle collision injuries, falls and burns at the public facility. Both the capacity building component and the actual study were complicated by a number of obstacles, including limited personnel, poor costing and billing capacity, underdeveloped billing documentation and recording procedures, and limited levels of investment in the general practice of injury costing in the public health sector itself. This article examines the practical challenges facing further attempts to describe the cost of injuries in South Africa. It concludes with several critical reflections on concerns associated with an uncritical pursuit of the roll-out of a national injury costing system, which may have a negative impact on service delivery to the very populations that encounter injuries as a public health sector priority.
  • Piloting an Educational Response to Violence in Uganda: Prospects for a New Curriculum

    S Lawoko; K Kahn; R Lett; M Mutto (African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 2011-10-07)
    This pilot study assessed Mato-Oput5 (hereafter the curriculum), a new peace education curriculum, for indications of beneficial efficacy, specifically the capacity to reduce negative attitudes towards conflict and violence, and injury and violence rates. A cluster randomised control design was used. Three of the six purposively selected schools were exposed to the curriculum. Mato-Oput5 is a value-based, formalised curriculum taught by specifically trained teachers. Its learning areas include conflict, conscience, violence, non-violence, impulse control, anger management, kindness, forgiveness, empathy and reconciliation. The results showed the baseline and post-intervention bio-demographic characteristics of the treatment arms to be comparable, thus suggesting baseline group equivalence and randomisation success. The follow-up loss was 9%. The mean pre- and post-intervention intentional incident rates of the intervention and control groups were 270/1000 and 370/1000, and 190/1000 and 350/1000, respectively: these differences were not significant. The intervention had no effect on post-intervention intentional incident rates. There were indications of beneficial efficacy in the curriculum, especially its ability to cause attitude shifts in support of non-violence. Statistically significant behavioural effects were not detected although a downward rate trend was seen in the intervention group.
  • 15Th South African Psychology Congress, Cape Town, South Africa

    L Letsela; Y Ally (African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 2011-10-07)
    No Abstract.

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