Preprint typeset using LATEX style emulateapj v. 11/10/09 INSTABILITY-DRIVEN DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION MODEL OF A PRIMORDIALLY 5 PLANET OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM
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AbstractOver the last decade, evidence has mounted that the solar system’s observed state can be favorably reproduced in the context of an instability-driven dynamical evolution model, such as the “Nice” model. To date, all successful realizations of instability models have concentrated on evolving the four giant planets onto their current orbits from a more compact configuration. Simultaneously, the possibility of forming and ejecting additional planets has been discussed, but never successfully implemented. Here we show that a large array of 5-planet (2 gas giants + 3 ice giants) multi-resonant initial states can lead to an adequate formation of the outer solar system, featuring an ejection of an ice giant during a phase of instability. Particularly, our simulations demonstrate that the eigenmodes which characterize the outer solar system’s secular dynamics can be closely matched with a 5-planet model. Furthermore, provided that the ejection timescale of the extra planet is short, orbital excitation of a primordial cold classical Kuiper belt can also be avoided in this scenario. Thus the solar system is one of many possible outcomes of dynamical relaxation and can originate from a wide variety of initial states. This deems the construction of a unique model of solar system’s early dynamical evolution impossible.