Preprint typeset using LATEX style emulateapj v. 5/25/10 THE ECCENTRIC KOZAI MECHANISM FOR A TEST PARTICLE
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AbstractWe study the dynamical evolution of a test particle that orbits a star in the presence of an exterior massive planet, considering octupole-order secular interactions. In the standard Kozai mechanism (SKM), the planet’s orbit is circular, and so the particle conserves vertical angular momentum. As a result, the particle’s orbit oscillates periodically, exchanging eccentricity for inclination. However, when the planet’s orbit is eccentric, the particle’s vertical angular momentum varies and its Kozai oscillations are modulated on longer timescales—we call this the eccentric Kozai mechanism (EKM). The EKM can lead to behavior that is dramatically different from the SKM. In particular, the par-ticle’s orbit can flip from prograde to retrograde and back again, and it can reach arbitrarily high eccentricities given enough time. We map out the conditions under which this dramatic behavior (flip-ping and extreme eccentricities) occurs, and show that when the planet’s eccentricity is sufficiently high, it occurs quite generically. For example, when the planet’s eccentricity exceeds a few percent of the ratio of semi-major axes (outer to inner), around half of randomly oriented test particle orbits will flip and reach extreme eccentricities. The SKM has often been invoked for bringing pairs of astronomical bodies (star-star, planet-star, compact-object pairs) close together. Including the effect of the EKM will enhance the rate at which such matchmaking occurs. 1.