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AbstractThe American Heart Association (AHA) has recently re-leased new recommendations to reduce the dietary intake of added sugars. Such changes are advocated due to the established link between high sugar intake and metabolic derangement and adverse health conditions including, for example, obesity and diabetes (1). The statement of the AHA report did not mention the potential effects of added sugars on risk of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, either through a direct influence on patho-genesis or through metabolic diseases, such as diabetes or hypertension. Animal models of dementia suggest that excess consumption of fructose contained in refined sugars like sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) can pro-mote dementia pathogenesis through increased central neuronal insulin resistance and deposition of beta amyloid (associated with Alzheimer’s disease, AD) (2,3). Currently, there is a lack of evidence for an effect of fructose on cog-nitive functions in humans, and a high intake of fructose-based sweeteners might be a significant risk factor for the development of dementia, independent of changes in the world age demographic and mortality rates (4–6). This article will explore the potential link between dietary and health secular trends in the United States, namely the grow-ing consumption of fructose-based sweeteners as a risk factor for dementia in the ageing population.