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Abstract本文选择闽南文化生态保护区最具典型性意义的山区县份之一——安溪县作为对象，研究它的民间戏曲及其文化生态。本文作者认为，在民间戏曲的文化生态中，最具有决定性意义的要素是官方的主流文化与民间文化之间的关系。新中国成立以来，这一关系的发展经历了截然不同的三个阶段。 从建国之初到“文革”前的十七年间，官方的主流文化与民间文化处于对立状态，官方开展了破除迷信、移风易俗的社会改造运动，宣扬无神论，试图使闽南乡村广大民众放弃自己的多神论、泛神论立场。50年代的“戏改”是这些社会政策的一个组成部分。戏曲剧团的人员构成、组织体制、上演剧目受到改造，民间戏曲的生存状态发生了巨大变化。“文革”十年，在极左思潮主宰下的官方文化与民间文化之间的关系表现为激烈的冲突。在“破四旧”运动中，民间文化受到摧残，民间戏曲赖以生存的基础受到破坏，但仍有民间艺人偷偷上演“黑戏”（传统剧目），表现出一种“草根的力量”。在改革开放以来的近三十年间，官方的主流文化逐步走上健康发展的道路。官方文化与民间文化之间逐步形成一种兼容互补、多元共存、和谐发展的态势。民间文化的重要遗产受到保护，民间戏曲的精品汇入主流文化。新建的庙宇、戏台不计其数，民间职业剧团雨后春笋般涌现。2007年，国家在闽南设立了全国第一个地域性的文化生态保护区。民间戏曲处于良好的文化生态之中。官方与民间两种文化“对立—冲突—和谐发展”的历史变化及其对民间戏曲生存状态的影响，通过安溪县的典型个案，清晰地展现出来。 本文上篇部分首先详细介绍了安溪县各种民间信仰和仪式活动，揭示了民间艺术赖以生存的文化土壤；其次，分析了民间戏曲团体的内部构成、经营方式和演剧形态，展现了民间戏曲的行业机制；最后研究了民间音乐、舞蹈、曲艺等表演艺术及其对戏曲的影响。 本文中篇部分探寻了安溪民间戏曲与文化生态的历史渊源。笔者把安溪民间戏曲的形成和发展分为几个不同的阶段：一、孕育与起源；二、成熟与发展；三、改革与繁荣；四、灾难与曲折；五、重建与辉煌；六、转型与变迁。通过分析安溪民间戏曲及其文化生态的历史发展轨迹，从历时的层面解读安溪民间戏曲的文化功能和社会角色的演变，勾勒出安溪民间戏曲与当地文化生态的深厚历史渊源关系。本文下篇部分为理论分析。笔者借鉴列宁关于两种民族文化的理论、巴赫金关于民间诙谐文化的理论和葛兰西关于文化领导权的理论，阐述了怎样正确地认识民间文化的价值和民间戏曲的社会功能，怎样处理官方主流文化与民间文化关系等问题，并强调在发展体现社会主义核心价值的先进文化的同时，努力实现主流文化与民间文化的平衡与和谐是一项重大战略任务。
This article chose Anxi County, the most typical place in Minnan (South Fujian) Cultural Ecology Reserve, as its object, studied the folk operas and its cultural ecology. The author holds that in the cultural ecology of folk operas, the most decisive element is the relationship between the official mainstream culture and the folk culture. Since the founding of the P. R. China, this relationship has undergone three distinctively different stages. Over the 17 years from the very beginning of the P. R. China to the Cultural Revolution, the official mainstream culture was opposed to the folk culture. The government waged campaigns to get rid of superstitious ideas and activities, advocated atheism, and discouraged polytheism among the people in the rural areas of Minnan (South Fujian). The “Opera Reform” in the 1950s was an integral part of such efforts, as a result of which, the makeup, organization and repertoire of opera troupes as well as were all changed, significantly affecting the state of existence of folk operas. During the 10 years of “Cultural Revolution”, the relationship between mainstream culture which was influenced by the “extreme leftist thought”, and folk culture escalated into intense conflict. The movement to demolish all antiquities devastated the folk culture and undermined the foundation of folk operas. Despite this, some folk artists stilled performed folk operas in secret, demonstrating the vitality of this “grassroots art”. The past 30 years or so of reform and opening up witnessed the healthy development of the mainstream culture and its harmonious coexistence with folk culture. Important folk cultural heritages are protected, and the masterpieces of folk operas are embraced by the mainstream culture. Numerous temples and opera stages were built and non-government opera troupes mushroomed. In 2007, China established the first regional cultural ecology reserve in Minnan (South Fujian), putting the folk operas here in a sound cultural ecology. Through the case study of Anxi County, this opposition-conflic-harmounious development relationship between official culture and folk culture and its impact on the state of existence of folk operas is clearly revealed. Part 1 introduces in details Anxi folk beliefs and rituals, and identifies the environment for the survival of folk arts. Then the author discusses composition of opera troupe, its management and its performance form, and shows the trade mechanism. Lastly the author studies the impact of folk music, folk dance, folk performing arts on folk operas. Part 2 deals with the historical origin of Anxi folk opera and its cultural ecology. The author divides the development of Anxi folk operas into the following stages: inception and genesis; mature and development; reform and bloom; difficulties and falls; reconstruction and glory; transfer and change. Through reviewing the history of Anxi folk opera and its cultural ecology, the author interprets the changes of Anxi folk opera’s cultural function and social role synchronically, and depicts the profound historical links between Anxi folk opera and local cultural ecology.The last part is theoretical analysis. Drawing upon two theories of cultural ecology, i. e., Bakhtin’s culture of folk humor and Gramsci’s Culture Hegemony, the author illustrated how to correctly understand the value of folk culture and the social functions of folk operas and how to deal with the relationship between official mainstream culture and folk culture, and emphasized that while developing the advanced culture featuring socialist core values, keeping the balance and harmony of mainstream culture and folk culture is a major strategic task.