Adolescents’ willingness for intergenerational support: Relations to maternal expectations and mothers’ life satisfaction in 14 cultures
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AbstractHow is adolescents’ willingness for intergenerational support affected by parents’ expectations and parenting behavior? Does youths’ willingness for intergenerational support in turn affect parents’ well-being? The current study addresses these questions from a cross-cultural perspective, using data from connected samples of mother-adolescent dyads (N = 4162) from 14 diverse cultural contexts as part of the “Value of Children and Intergenerational Relations Study” (Trommsdorff & Nauck, 2005). The results are based on mixed model analyses (with culture as a random factor). Associations were investigated between family norms (expectations of support by adult children), parenting goals (obedience, independence) and parenting behavior (acceptance, control) reported by mothers and adolescents’ reports on willingness to support (help in household tasks, willingness to tolerate burdens in order to help their parents in case of accident, emotional support given to mothers and fathers). Across cultures, maternal expectations of adult children were positively related to adolescents’ reported household help and their current emotional support to mothers and fathers. Obedience, and control were positively related to the amount of adolescent help in the household, while independence and acceptance were related to a higher willingness to tolerate burdens as well as to higher emotional support given to the mother. Regarding associations between adolescents’ actual and intended intergenerational support with mothers’ life satisfaction, adolescents’ willingness to tolerate burdens was related to a higher maternal life satisfaction while adolescents’ reported household help was not. Adolescents’ current emotional support to fathers (but not to mothers) was also related to higher maternal life satisfaction. While most of the effects were stable across cultures (no significant random slope variance across cultural groups), some effects did significantly vary across cultures. Traditional-vs.-secular values as culture-level characteristics will be discussed as explanation for these culture-specific relations among mothers’ expectations, adolescents’ intergenerational support, and mothers’ life satisfaction.
Mayer, Boris; Schwarz, Beate; Trommsdorff, Gisela (September 2015). Adolescents’ willingness for intergenerational support: Relations to maternal expectations and mothers’ life satisfaction in 14 cultures (Unpublished). In: 17th European Conference on Developmental Psychology. Braga, Portugal. 08.09.-12.09.2015.