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AbstractThis paper explores the diversity of transnational Islam in Pakistan. The paper argues that most of Pakistan´s Islamic actors are tied to economic, cultural and religious forms of globalization. The radical and militant forms of transnational Islam in the country are largely driven by factors directly linked to Pakistan´s political and security apparatuses. It is suggested that the increase in militant activities in Pakistan stems from the reluctance or inability of Pakistan´s government to introduce firm standards of law and civility. The paper contends that networks centered on Islamic scholarship or Pakistan´s identity, are not per se violent and threatening, but reflect the religious, cultural and ethnic concerns of an expanding global diaspora of South Asian Muslims.