Рукописи на бересте из заимочной коллекции: предварительные итоги палеографического анализа
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AbstractПриводятся некоторые итоги палеографического описания рукописей на бересте из заимочной коллекции сибирских старообрядцев. Дается характеристика почерков, материалов и средств письма, оформления рукописей. Анализируется практика письма, использование полууставной и скорописной графики. Приводится краткая характеристика репертуара рукописей в сравнении с репертуаром рукописей на бумаге. Проведенное исследование позволяет сделать предварительные выводы о месте кириллической письменности (в частности, письма на бересте) в жизни и быту сибирских старообрядцев.
Some results of paleographical description of birch-bark manuscripts of Zaimochnaya (squatting) collection, belonging to Siberian old-believers, are summarized in this article. The material for writing (birchbark) is described; its processing methods are noticed (peeling of the upper layer, pressing). All the manuscripts under description consist of one gathering of a small format (octavo). The reason for using birch-bark as a material for writing could well be connected with the absence of paper; and letters to hermits prove this assumption. Two types of handwriting are used in the manuscripts: semi uncial and cursive. All manuscripts under study can be divided into three parts: the first group manuscripts written in large scratchy semi uncial, the second group in more professional semi uncial, the third group in cursive with a large variety of scripts. Writing practice is analyzed, which allows to reconstruct the methods of pen sharpening and make a conclusion about the qualification of a scriber. Tools for writing, used by old-believers, are enumerated: pen, pencil, a pointed object, which was used for scratching the text. It is shown, that there was not close connection between text type and the way of writing: sacral texts were not always rewritten in semi uncial. Material for writing and type of handwriting were not strict markers for dividing sacral/secular spheres. In general, all that was said about handwritings should be considered as degradation, reduction of graphical tradition, loss of definite relations in the pair text method of its reproduction. This process was still in progress in secluded old-believers hermitages in the middle of XX century, as one can see from the materials under study. A short description of the repertory of birch-bark manuscripts in comparison with that of paper ones is given. It is shown that menologies and texts for household use predominate among birch-bark manuscripts. Birch-bark manuscripts performed a function of filling repertory lacunas; they also performed a communicative function. Writing was very widespread in everyday life of hermits, it was very common for them, and notably it was Cyrillic writing primarily. However, writing was not interpreted by hermits as some sacral attribute, connected with the sacral world only; on the contrary, it was also widely used for household needs. The research allows to draw some preliminary conclusions about the place of Cyrillic writing (particularly, writing on birch-bark) in everyday life of Siberian old-believers.