Саламанка в творчестве выдающегося испанского картографа Томаса Лопеса (к изучению книжного собрания Строгановых научной библиотеки Томского государственного университета)
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AbstractВ статье рассматривается карта провинции Саламанка, изданная Т. Лопесом в 1783 г. Дается описание документа, анализируется методика работы ведущего картографа Испании эпохи Просвещения, прослеживается траектория его жизненного и творческого пути.
In Stroganov' book collection of Tomsk University Scientific library the Spanish editions represent a valuable internal collection. In its structure there are maps of Spain created by the outstanding Spanish cartographer T. Lopez. The choice of the map of province Salamanca as a subject of consideration was conditioned by interest of the author to the Universitarian Spain in which Salamanca takes a special place. Thomas Lopez (1730-1802) belonged to the generation of scientists and men of culture of the Spanish Enlightenment. He became an outstanding figure of the era, thanks to his big contribution to development of the Spanish cartography. After training in Paris, he was engaged in composition and edition of maps of various provinces of Spain; he organized trade of cartographical production. Charles III entitled him "Geographer of his Majesty possession". He was charged with creating the geographical atlas of Spain; but he didn't manage to finish this project. After his death it was made by his sons, they published the atlas in 1804. In modern Spanish historiography T. Lopez's works remain an actual object of research. The appreciation of huge volume of maps created by T. Lopez who is called "the room cartographer" is conventional. The technique of his work didn't assume direct acquaintance with regions. Lopez widely used in his work questionnaires which were popular sources during the Enlightenment era. He sent letters with questionnaires to the church and secular authorities of the Spanish provinces for obtaining geographical and historical information on his native peninsula. Well illustrates Lopez's cartographical creativity the engraved map of the province Salamanca made in 1783. In the left top corner of the map there is a cartouche in which the work name, dedication, authorship and date is specified. Administrative units into which the province divide are designated on the map, their borders are marked with lines of red, beige and green colours. In the map center below there is an explanation of administrative terms. In the top right corner there is legend where conventional signs used on the map are shown and their explanation is made. Here the cities and villages of various sizes are presented, signs of technical constructions and natural elements are given. The big group of symbols of religious value attracts attention. In the list also is available the symbol of university that is quite natural to the map of the Salamanca region. In the central part of the map below there is detailed information on the data used at composition of the map. Lopez enumerates here some tens correspondents who have sent to the royal cartographer valuable information on their cities and villages. The map of the province Salamanca published by T. Lopez became the first such a document in history of Salamanca. The author of the work notes it, hoping for indulgence of "readers" and expecting reasonable offers on correction of inaccuracies.