«Парижский текст» в русских периодических изданиях 1830-1860-х гг
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AbstractСтатья посвящена восприятию Парижа в русской публицистике 1830-1860-х гг. Текст о французской столице формируется в ней в зависимости от социально-исторического контекста, а также политической направленности изданий. В связи с этим парижский текст может игнорироваться, быть представленным с иронией, неприязнью или содержать объективную оценку французской действительности.
This article examines a representative part of the Russian Paris text, namely, sections and columns devoted to Paris in Russian journals of different ideological and aesthetic trends of the 1830-1860s, the time of strained relations between Russia and France. Journals were analyzed that had an impact on the Russian public, and had a certain political view: "Moskvityanin" (Muscovite), "Syn Otechestva" (Son of the Homeland), "Biblioteka dlya Chteniya'' (Collection for Reading), "Otechestvennye Zapiski'' (Notes of the Homeland), "Sovremennik" (The Contemporary), and "Russkiy Vestnik'' (Russian Herald). The perception of Paris was significantly affected by the socio-historical reality with its profound internal contradictions. In the 1830s many Russian publications showed certain hostility to France, which was triggered by the July Revolution of 1830, and by the impact of the German idealist philosophy on the majority of Russian activists. Passion for European ideas, French in particular, was suppressed by the government. Thus, stricter censorship provoked ban of certain journals that covered Parisian life ("Yevropeetz" (The European), "Moskovsky Telegraph" (Moscow Telegraph), "Telescope"). In the mid-1830s politically "reliable" journals came to the fore, such as "Syn Otechestva" and "Biblioteka dlya Chteniya". These journals either ignored information about Paris or presented it with some sarcasm and disdain. In the 1840s Russia witnesses a clear opposition of ideologies of the Westerners and the Slavophils. Two journals are popular at the time, "Moskvityanin" and "Otechestvennye Zapiski", which show two opposing points of view on Paris. In "Moskvityanin" there emerges a clear rejection of Paris and all the French. "Otechestvennye Zapiski" and later "Sovremennik'' (The Contemporary) regularly publish articles on the events of Parisian life, news of French literature and Paris fashion. During the "dark seven-year period" (1848-1855) Russian journals continue to publish articles about Paris. They cover various aspects of the life of the French capital, but do not address any urgent issues. After the Crimean War and censorship "terror" abundant information about Paris comes back to pages of Russian journals. For example, "Russkiy Vestnik" had a year-long column "News from Paris", which, along with the Parisian political life, covered the news of the secular activities of the capital. The study showed that despite the different directions of Russian journals, each of them contains texts about the French capital. Pro-Western "Otechestvennye Zapiski" and "Sovremennik" showed Paris from different points of view: the information related to cultural achievements, news, social life and political events. As for the opposition journals, they either ignored Parisian phenomena or portrayed them with irony, or even hostility.