Ambigua: revista de Investigaciones sobre Género y Estudios Culturales es una publicación electrónica que aparece en forma de monográfico y aborda aquellos temas que se encuadran dentro de las investigaciones sobre el género y los estudios culturales desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar. El público al que va dirigida es de índole internacional, ya que acepta la publicación de artículos escritos en distintas lenguas de la Unión Europea (español, francés, inglés) y nacionales (catalán).

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The Globethics.net library contains articles of Ambigua: revista de Investigaciones sobre Género y Estudios Culturales as of vol. 1(2014) to current.

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  • Analysis of antipatriarchal discursive representations in literature through three works: three works: matriarchy as an alternative form of exercising power

    Moreno Amor, Maravillas; Rojo Martínez , José Miguel (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    This paper sets out to analyze the presence of alternative literary representations to the classic canons of patriarchy and, specifically, search for texts where a matriarchal order is constructed as a subversive form of exercising power. The interpretive dimension of women as protagonists/participants of the literary narrative is the one that centers the analyses carried out, extracting the archetypal connotations of the characters that articulate the story and their own relationships, which constitutes a critical evidence of realities that transmit implicit knowledge to the reader about the social existence. Although literature generates a negotiated fiction, its critical reading should not be carried out outside those sociological categories that allow us to unravel the world. After reviewing some theoretical concepts on the ideas of matriarchy, patriarchy and feminist criticism, three works have specifically been selected as outstanding examples of how creative tools can serve female empowerment and the transformation of the collective imagination: Lysistrata, a comedy by Aristophanes; One Hundred Years of Solitude, the novel par excellence by Gabriel García Márquez and The Country of Women, by Nicaraguan Gioconda Belli, one of the most prominent feminist writers in contemporary literature written in Spanish. The three works are intimately connected and represent, in turn, a plausible (re) conceptualization of the feminine experience aligned with feminist theories of difference. This last issue allows us to invite the reader to return to one of the classic debates of the contemporary feminist movement: to renounce or to exalt gender, finding in it, rather than a violent and oppressive social construction, an opportunity to change the world from a new scale of values ​​starring motherhood and care policy.
  • V as violence, V as vengeance. : The resistance of women in Paola Drigo’s novel Maria Zef

    Cagnolati, Antonella (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    Paola Drigo (1876-1938) was an important and original voice of Italian literature and many critics consider her to be one of the most important writers of the first half of the 20th century. The main themes that the writer faced during her literary production seem very different: we go from an initial phase in which the description of the sparkling and empty environments of the rich bourgeoisie in which she lived prevails, to a more mature phase in which the writer places humble, poor and marginal women at the center of her stories, weakened by fate and overcome by misfortunes. When she published Maria Zef in 1936, the novel caused a stir among the Italian literary community, because it dealt with subjects, considered taboo, harshly and openly, with an evident desire for denunciation and a sometimes disarming simplicity. The plot, actually quite stark, revolves around three female figures who are at the center of the narrative plot and from whose relationships the fundamental dynamics of the novel originate. However, this simplicity is only apparent, since the novel proceeds intelligently through the presentation of some clues that will lead to a final epiphany, which will be followed by a destructive and decisive gesture, a gesture widely justified by the premises. The ending is worthy of a Greek tragedy: the fatal component dominates, the intertwining of destinies, fallen in luck to ignorant humans, and inevitably death assumes the dimension of the event necessary to satisfy the thirst for a just revenge.
  • Dimensions and figures inscribed in child sexual abuse. : Reflections from the ecological model of violence

    Díaz Bonilla, Paola Andrea (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    The purpose of this article seeks to put into dialogue a series of reflections around three figures registered in the occurrence of child sexual abuse: the victims, the abuser and the witness. These reflections reached arise from the findings resulting from the qualitative research on this sexual crime, which were achieved from the realization of three discussion groups in the municipalities of Aquitania and Chitaraque of the department of Boyacá, Colombia with the participation of different institutional and community actors belonging to this region of the country. The results obtained are analyzed in the light of the integrated feminist ecological model, seeking to identify the relationships and interactions that are built between each of these actors, taking into account the personal dimensions of the microsystem, exosystem, and macrosystem that the model proposes. Faced with the findings, the mediation carried out by the blaming of the victims and the invisibility of abusers and witnesses stand out, as factors that contribute to the maintenance of child sexual abuse suffered by girls in the rural environments of these municipalities targeted by the investigation, and that can be extended to other settings in the department. Finally, the reflections reached are aimed at considering the mechanisms by which the patriarchal and adultcentric legacy are instituted as stimulators of sociocultural practices and imagery that legitimize and naturalize child sexual abuse as part of the continuum of violence suffered by girls.
  • Siempre han hablado por nosotras, Feminismo e identidad: Un manifiesto valiente y necesario de Najat El Hachmi, , Madrid, Destino, 2019, 134 pp

    Hernández Rodríguez, Ana Isabel (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-16)
  • Stalkers, rapists and abusers: The other Terrorists – their literary construction

    Suárez Lafuente, M.S. (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    The aim of this article is to provide literary examples that will throw some light into a perplexing fact: it is difficult to understand why the political powers and society at large avert their gaze from the battering, violating and murdering of women. The main reason could be that female dependency is inscribed in the collective unconscious throughout the world, and that the dominant discourse prevents any change, fearful of the consequences that such a revolution would mean both to the social order and to the economy. It is easier to count female victims by the thousands than awake to incontrovertible and logical reasons – Goya inscribed this situation in one of his Caprices: “The sleep of Reason produces monsters”. My contention is that these monsters, that walk the streets alongside us, should be named properly as terrorists and be judged as such. Literature is constantly denouncing their deeds, through the globe and in all languages. In this article we analyse but a few examples by Ruth Rendell, Louise Doughty, Judith Hermann, Nawal al-Saadawi, Roddy Doyle, Mohsin Hamid, Suniti Namjoshi and Margaret Drabble.
  • Visibilizando a las líderes: El liderazgo de las mujeres a través de su discurso

    Gañán Sánchez, Elena (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    In this document, the reader will find the development of an exploratory study that investigates the perception of women on their leadership in the business, institutional and political sectors. Through focused interviews, the speech of six leaders with a high social prestige is examined to find differences and similarities based on factors such as the type of organization they lead, age or ideological and feminist orientation. It is interesting to know if age, ideology or feminism are influences for their way of thinking or exercising leadership. This will serve to provide a visibility space for women who, even today, have greater difficulties than men to access positions of power, some reason for this phenomenon is also reflected. The work will serve as support for future studies that deepen this research line.
  • Music for revenge. Racism, rape and murder: the case of The Last Train From Gun Hill (John Sturges, 1959)

    Pérez García, Lucía (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    The Western film directed by the American filmmaker John Sturges, The Last Train From Gun Hill (1959), tells the story of a man’s revenge for the rape and murder of his Native American wife. The music, composed by Dimitri Tiomkin -in the third collaboration with Sturges, plays a fundamental role in the narrative shaping. For this, the composer uses once again the monothematic technique that made him successful in the fifties and in his previous western with the director, Gunfight at OK Corral (1957), becoming the reference point of the Western film music since High Noon (Fred Zinnemann, 1952). Analyzing the score and the scrip, and comparing them with those of the two other works in which Tiomkin had to deal with rape and vengeance, it is proved that the whole music of The Last Train From Gun Hill gives voice to the outraged woman, who uses the various characteristics and variations of the main theme to guide the actions of the male protagonist. This way, it is confirmed the Tiomkin’s ability to highlight the female characters of his films -whether they are protagonists or have a supporting role; as well as the possibility of addressing from different points of view such a serious issues as rape, murder, vengeance and even racism, through the film music.
  • La Women´s madness: prison and subterfuge

    Bega Martinez, Renata (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    Madness as a suffering linked to women´s lives seems to manifest in the first instance as a historical and cultural continuity, a stage that all have gone through either for an instant or throughout their whole existence. To analyze the network of madness, violence, stigma and how they are presented transversely on women in a systematic and historical way becomes an essential but unreachable task in this article. What is specifically taken into account and questioned here is the notion and category of being crazy nowadays in western societies where violence(s), as a constant factor regardless its various expressions, fulfill(s) a fundamental role.
  • Where the forgotten sounds live: the factories inhabited by working women in Murcia during the first Franco regime (1939-1959)

    Martínez Cárceles, Ibán (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    The main objective of this article is to show the social plots of some of the vegetable preserves factories in the Region of Murcia during the first Franco regime (1939-1959). For this, the legislative aspects are taken into account, but above all it starts from the oral memory of some of the workers. In this way we relate the amalgam of joys and sorrows of the workers, showing the violence exerted by those who exercise power. Finally, we show how through singing the workers could make certain replies to some of the speeches held by those who exercised violence.
  • Analysis of antipatriarchal discursive representations in literature through three works: matriarchy as an alternative form of exercising power

    Moreno Amor, Maravillas; Rojo Martínez , José Miguel (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    This paper sets out to analyze the presence of alternative literary representations to the classic canons of patriarchy and, specifically, search for texts where a matriarchal order is constructed as a subversive form of exercising power. The interpretive dimension of women as protagonists/participants of the literary narrative is the one that centers the analyses carried out, extracting the archetypal connotations of the characters that articulate the story and their own relationships, which constitutes a critical evidence of realities that transmit implicit knowledge to the reader about the social existence. Although literature generates a negotiated fiction, its critical reading should not be carried out outside those sociological categories that allow us to unravel the world. After reviewing some theoretical concepts on the ideas of matriarchy, patriarchy and feminist criticism, three works have specifically been selected as outstanding examples of how creative tools can serve female empowerment and the transformation of the collective imagination: Lysistrata, a comedy by Aristophanes; One Hundred Years of Solitude, the novel par excellence by Gabriel García Márquez and The Country of Women, by Nicaraguan Gioconda Belli, one of the most prominent feminist writers in contemporary literature written in Spanish. The three works are intimately connected and represent, in turn, a plausible (re) conceptualization of the feminine experience aligned with feminist theories of difference. This last issue allows us to invite the reader to return to one of the classic debates of the contemporary feminist movement: to renounce or to exalt gender, finding in it, rather than a violent and oppressive social construction, an opportunity to change the world from a new scale of values ​​starring motherhood and care policy.
  • Absence of resourses, widowhood in patriarcachy: a complicity between civil law and customary law

    KOUASSI, Dawoulé Bohoussou (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    This article aims to study the widowhood of women in Africa as a form of symbolic, social, domestic and sexual violence, based on African literature of spanish and french expression. It is both a factor in representing violence against widows from an artistic, cultural and literary perspective. It does not ignore the socio-cultural factors and causes of violence against women in Africa. Consequently, the literature will be called upon to dialogue around the issue of violence against widowed women and social change, that is to say between vulnerability and subversion. This dialogue involves the analysis of the novel Ekomo (2008) by the equatorial guinean writer María Nsue Angüe and Co-épouses Et Co-veuves (2015) by the central african Adrienne Yabouza. He will also be interested in their positioning in the Africain literary field in the face of sexist dichotomies and the collusion that exists between customary law and civil law, in order to write the situation of widows in Africa in a patriarchal system. The victims of violence [widowed women] are highlighted through an explicit fictionalization of socio-cultural, and political realities. This shows how, using stylistic and narrative methods, literature is a privileged tool for pushing the boundaries of gender and contributes to the understanding of a situation of violence which is concealed. 
  • The graffiti artists, artists and muralists transgressing gender roles within the urban graphics of Aguascalientes

    Recio Saucedo, Sergio Raúl (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    The activities of graffiti, street art and urban muralism are characterized by being practices that have been linked mainly to the male figure due to the physical risks they pose to the participants. However, gradually women have been incorporated into the dynamics of graphic intervention of the spaces of the hydro-warm territory. Therefore, the article explains the gender stereotypes and the acts carried out by women graffiti artists, artists and muralists to transgress the cultural and historical ideas that limit and condemn their performance within the graphic-street movements of the city of Aguascalientes. Female graphic activity was approached from gender studies to elucidate the complexity of the cultural elements that socially define female and male identities within society. In addition, to analyze the dynamics that disturb the established orders destined to the transgression of the ideas that determine the duty of the female figure. This was possible through the application of in-depth interviews that provided information about their work in the movements. The results that were obtained were associated with the understanding of the acts that women use to transgress gender roles in the graffiti, street art and muralism movements. As well as the practices they develop to stay active. This made it possible to conclude that women present themselves in public spaces as a person capable and courageous of reproducing the street dynamics of movements in Aguascalientes.
  • Dacia Maraini: Abused children and silenced mothers

    González Rodríguez , Begoña (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    Dacia Maraini has moved to her works the harsh reality of many children who live trapped in the networks of men who comment on them sexual abuse and with whom they share their day to day. Indirectly, the mothers of these children are also prisoners of such violence by their partners. This work aims to analyze through four stories of Dacia Maraini, the role of mothers in the sexual abuse of their children. Whether they are accomplice, or they confront abusers standing up for their children, mothers carry the burden of guilt, which sometimes means the destruction of their own lives.
  • Aesthetic narratives as a politics of resistance from the Honduran female experience

    Gas, Silvia (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    Honduras is framed in a place of different kinds of violence that prevent the democratic progress of the country. The high rates of criminal violence are attributed to a problem among gangs that persists in a context of poverty and inequality. The resulting effect of this reductionist perspective approached by the State is the implantation of repressive measures towards society, instead of proposing preventive policies. Violences are hierarchized, giving them different values. In this sense, femicides are considered a minor problem. There is a lack of intention on the part of the institutions to solve these practices that favor impunity and affect the personal development of women. The aim is to examine the relationship between the particular Honduran context and the artistic representation of violence against women. The artists, from their condition, experience and reality, establish a political dialogue approached from the aesthetic language as a transforming and resistance act. What are the strategies and narratives used by Honduran artists to highlight violence? For its analysis, the methodology used was based on feminist epistemological approaches that allowed a reflective interpretation of the works proposed by the artists. The results obtained were the perpetuation of the patriarchal system that affects the artistic evolution developed by women. Likewise, the difficulty to make visible hidden reality of violence which remains subject to a pact of silence instigated by the culture of fear that the institutions protect.
  • House of Strangers (Mankiewicz, 1949): Noir iconography and violence with a Shakespearean background

    Portillo, Francisca (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    The aim of the present research is to analyse the violence underlying the autocratic proceedings of a father upon his otherwise submissive and resentful sons under the frame of a Shakespearean background. The starting point has been the cinematographic adaptation House of Strangers (1949) by Joseph L. Mankiewicz which is based on one of the most acclaimed tragedies by the English bard, King Lear (1606). The theme of violence acquires relevance when the daughters who despise Lear are transformed into sons by Mankiewicz, revealing how roughness and brutality not only can be inherited and enhanced but, especially, that it can be surmounted and transcended given the proper conditions. These topics are considered not only from a genre perspective but from a very specific cinematographic context, that of noir films, which contribute with a whole set of motifs, characters and atmosphere. With regards to gender considerations, the main aspects examined include the different treatment given to male and female characters in labour and familiar contexts. While women are traditionally circumscribed within the family environment men are more frequently enclosed as leading roles in a social and working milieu. As a striking and significant differentiation, the role of three of the four brothers is analysed in terms of their “feminisation” due to their inability to face their father’s domineering nature, while the fourth one is heir of their father’s violence towards women. Finally, and most importantly, there is the comparison between two opposite female roles, that of Maria and Irene, being the first the impersonator of the concept of “the angel in the house” while the later embodies all the features of a prototypical femme fatale.
  • Female characters, padrotes and the prostitution of minors in the book Amorosos fantasmas by Paco Ignacio Taibo II

    Parra Sánchez, Diego Ernesto (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    Amorosos fantasmas is a novel written by Paco Ignacio Taibo II that belongs to the crime fiction genre and was published in 1989. The sixth installment of his most representative detective saga, the one starring the investigator Héctor Belascoarán Shayne, narrates the research about the murder of a young minor, named Virginia, after trying to escape from a criminal network, located in Mexico City and dedicated to the prostitution of minors, who, with the mediation of a pimp, tried to capture her. This work demonstrates that, as in all the Mexican author's detective narrative, in which the literary formula is always oriented towards political and social denunciation, the novel exudes almost every page disenchantment and frustration at the social injustice and exploitation of more disadvantaged citizens and exposed to the excesses of the corrupt PRI system. In this case, the corrosive denunciation of Taibo II focuses on topics such as violence against women and female sexual exploitation in the urban environment through, first of all, the most relevant female characters in the novel: the victims Virginia and Laura. And, secondly, the analysis of a social archetype deeply rooted in Mexico: that of the pimp, embodied by the character of Manuel. Dedicated to the recruitment of sex servants, in many cases minors, and to the intermediation between them and the client, the novel uncovers the gears of this lucrative system of abuse and domination. Furthermore, in doing so, he is right to portray it as a network in which, although the pimp plays an axial role, there is a collective structure similar to that of a criminal organization that protects the pimp and benefits from his actions.
  • Whores, hysterical and faggots: Gender-based violence in film reviews published online by Spaniards

    Terrón Barroso, Antonio (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    The main objective of this work is to condemn the presence of different verbal forms of gender-based violence in anonymously written film reviews published in Filmaffinity.com by users who identified themselves as Spaniards in their profiles. It also intends to explore the use and frequency of pejorative constructions, insults and nicknames related to gender identity. With these objectives in mind, a corpus with 376,285 words from 1,472 reviews has been compiled and analysed. All the reviews are based on the 20 fiction films co-produced by Spain together with the UK and/or the USA between 2005 and 2015 that include at least one Spanish actress or actor in their casts. Among the 1,472 reviews analysed, 105 (7,1%) contain a minimum of one example of a pejorative construction, one insult or one nickname related to gender identity. More precisely, insults have been found in 18 reviews (1,2%), nicknames in 32 (2,2%) and pejorative constructions in 56 (3,8%). The most frequent insults have qualified female subjects as prostitutes (83,3%) and male subjects as homosexuals (16,7%). Pejorative constructions revolve around the conception of homosexuality as abnormal (10,7%) and around female subjects as valueless, not serious and uncontrolled on the one side (67,8%) and as objects (21,4%) on the other. The significant homophobic, misogynistic and heteronormative burden found in this study proves that keeping on working on active policies to eradicate any form of gender-based violence in Spain is still much needed nowadays. Moreover, it is also necessary to create control mechanisms to avoid that this type of violence continues to use the anonymity offered by the Internet and social nets to keep on normalising its discriminatory discourse, especially among the groups of people more exposed to their messages as youngsters.
  • Masculine femininity and feminine masculinities: contributions to a critique (queer) of feminicidal reason

    De Mauro Rucovsky, Martin Adrian (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    In the following pages we propose to address the toolbox that encourages the approaches around feminicide and rape as a paradigmatic figure of heteropatriarchal violence in our region. We will take as a starting point what has been said and written by Rita Segato in order to give an account of a situation of criticism in gender and feminist studies.  But also to advance in the deepening of a "critique of feminicidal reason" (Virginia Cano, 2016) from a trans, lesbian-gay, cuir-queer and post-feminist perspective. For this purpose we are going to consider, in particular, the varied forms of feminine masculinities, masculinity embodied in bodies assigned as women, to dispute this set of presuppositions implicit in Segato's toolbox.
  • Right to maternal health of Ngäbe and Bugle women in Costa Rica: Myths, perceptions and discrimination

    Solano, Sofía (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    This work is located in the border area between Costa Rica and Panamá, and seeks to detail the experience of being a Ngäbe and Buglé indigenous in these two countries, as well as the migration processes over the years, that are carried out for the job search and better quality of life. In this context of displacement, denial, poverty and social exclusion, it is sought to trace from the experience of maternal and child health care of indigenous women how the binomial gender violence (particularly obstetric violence) and historical racism operate on this population. .
  • V as violence, V as vengeance: The resistance of women in Paola Drigo’s novel Maria Zef

    Cagnolati, Antonella (Seminario de Investigación de Género y Estudios Culturales, 2020-12-14)
    Paola Drigo (1876-1938) was an important and original voice of Italian literature and many critics consider her to be one of the most important writers of the first half of the 20th century. The main themes that the writer faced during her literary production seem very different: we go from an initial phase in which the description of the sparkling and empty environments of the rich bourgeoisie in which she lived prevails, to a more mature phase in which the writer places humble, poor and marginal women at the center of her stories, weakened by fate and overcome by misfortunes. When she published Maria Zef in 1936, the novel caused a stir among the Italian literary community, because it dealt with subjects, considered taboo, harshly and openly, with an evident desire for denunciation and a sometimes disarming simplicity. The plot, actually quite stark, revolves around three female figures who are at the center of the narrative plot and from whose relationships the fundamental dynamics of the novel originate. However, this simplicity is only apparent, since the novel proceeds intelligently through the presentation of some clues that will lead to a final epiphany, which will be followed by a destructive and decisive gesture, a gesture widely justified by the premises. The ending is worthy of a Greek tragedy: the fatal component dominates, the intertwining of destinies, fallen in luck to ignorant humans, and inevitably death assumes the dimension of the event necessary to satisfy the thirst for a just revenge.

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