Asia Pacific Theological Seminary (APTS) is a cooperative ministry of the Assemblies of God national churches of Asia, Pacific Oceania, and the Assemblies of God World Missions-USA. Asia Pacific Theological Seminary Press is publishing the Asian Journal for Pentecostal Studies (AJPS). The journal seeks to provide a forum to encourage serious theological thinking and articulation by Pentecostals/Charismatics in Asia; to promote interaction among Asian Pentecostals/Charismatics and dialogue with other Christian traditions; to stimulate creative contextualization of the Christian faith; and to provide a means for Pentecostals/Charismatics to share their theological reflections.


The library contains articles of the Asian Journal for Pentecostal Studies (AJPS) as of vol. 1(1998) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 22, no. 1 (February 2019)

    ORU Library, Holy Spirit Research Center (Digital Showcase, 2019-02-01)
    Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies Volume 22, Number 1 (February 2019) EDITORIAL Dave Johnson Asian Theological Issues Part 1 1-2 ARTICLES William Toh, “Issues Arising from Weak Ecclesiological Concepts in the Modern Day Pentecostal Church: Part 1,” 3-20 William Toh “Issues Arising from Weak Ecclesiological Concepts in the Modern Day Pentecostal Church: Part 2,” 21-30 Lora Angeline Embudo-Timenia “Critical Understanding of a Filipino Third Wave Signs and Wonders Theology: A Case Study of Hiram Pangilinan: Part 1,” 31-47 Lora Angeline Embudo-Timenia, “Critical Understanding of a Filipino Third Wave Signs and Wonders Theology: A Case Study of Hiram Pangilinan: Part 2,” 49-63 Bernard Koh Ming Huat, “Constructing Chineseness in Ministry: A Contextualized (Re)thinking with Special Reference to Chinese Church in Indonesia and Singapore: Part 1,” 65-82 Bernard Koh Ming Huat, “Constructing Chineseness in Ministry: A Contextualized (Re)thinking with Special Reference to Chinese Church in Indonesia and Singapore: Part 2,” 83-99 PRESS RELEASES Press Release 1 “Press Release on the International Dialogue Between The World Communion of Reformed Churches and Classical Pentecostals,” 101-102 Press Release 2 “Third meeting of the International Lutheran-Pentecostal Dialogue 7 - 12 October 2018, Santiago, Chile Communiqué,” 103-104 BOOK REVIEWS Dr. Vee J.D-Davidson F. Gerald Downing, Formation for Knowing God: Imagining God: AtOne-ing, Transforming, for Self-Revealing, 105-107 Jun Kim Sang Yun Lee, A Theology of Hope: Contextual Perspective in Korean Pentecostalism, 108-115
  • Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 21.2 (August 2018)

    Faculty of Asia Pacific Theological Seminary (Digital Showcase, 2018-08-01)
    Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies Volume 21, Number 2 (August 2018) Dave Johnson, "Biblical Responses to Animism in Asia" ARTICLES Bee Huyen Nguyen, "Divination Versus Prophecy and Implications for Discipleship in the Vietnamese Context" Dave Johnson, "Baptism in the Holy Spirit vs Spirit Possession in the Lowland Philippines:Some Considerations for Discipleship" Yao Jiugang (Stephen), "The Chinese Concept of Tian (Heaven): Part 1" Yao Jiugang (Stephen), "The Chinese Concept of Tian (Heaven): Part 2 么久刚 华人天观与基督教上帝观之比较: 第一部分 么久刚 华人天观与基督教上帝观之比较: 第二部分 BOOK REVIEWS Paul J. Palma Gerald H. Anderson, ed., Witness to World Christianity: The International Association for Mission Studies Mark Anderson Samuel Lee, A New Kind of Pentecostalism: Promoting Dialogue for Change
  • Notes on Joel 3:1-5

    Hymes, David C. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "The pericope, Joel 3:1-5 has attracted the attention of both Biblical Scholars and interested believers. This ability to attract attention, derives from both its Old Testament context and significance along with its New Testament usage’s (Acts 2:17-21; Mark 13:24; Rom 10:13). Yet beyond its intra-testamentality it challenges the way we understand our relationship with God and those special “transformational moments” we experience and call spiritual."
  • The Indigenous Principle Revisited

    Carter, John F. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "For a most of this century the approach to missions which has generally characterized the overseas ministries of evangelical missions agencies has been based on the indigenous church principle.2 The indigenous principle suggests that the goal of the missionary movement is to bring the church in the lands where missionaries serve to the place where it is "self-supporting, self-governing and self-propagating."3 Indeed, if one were to ask many missionaries what they see as their future on the field, they would likely answer that their goal is to "work myself out of a job." While this statement echoes the sentiments of the indigenous principle,4 it may be unrealistic in the context of missions programs and realities as we approach the beginning of a new century. It is the purpose of this paper to evaluate some of the observable, though perhaps unintended, effects of the indigenous principle and to argue that a different conceptualization of the missionary task may be needed in some situations--one that places an emphasis on the interdependence of the ministry of missionaries and the national churches they serve."
  • Toward an Asian Pentecostal Theology

    Ma, Wonsuk (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "In the past two decades, the validity of Asian theological reflections has been forcefully argued not only by liberal theologians, but also Evangelicals.2 As a result, a consensus has emerged through critical Asian theological reflections for the legitimacy of Asian theology. However, the question remains: How shall we construct such a theological framework? Meanwhile, the century-old Pentecostal movement is experiencing several paradigm shifts in theological reflection. Case in point, various theological concerns were raised in two recent conferences: Brighton Conference of World Evangelization (1991)3 and Globalization of Pentecostalism Conference in Costa Rica (1996). In particular, the stance on constructing a Pentecostal theology was convincingly argued by participants from various parts of the world and traditions. Despite this progress, there are many basic unsettled issues in doing Pentecostal theology, let alone Pentecostal theologies related to specific contexts. As an example, the exact nature of the baptism in the Spirit, the primary Pentecostal distinctive, continues to be hotly debated."
  • A Pneumatological Approach to Virtue Ethics

    Lewis, Paul W. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "Pentecostalism in Asia, the west (western Europe and North America), and the rest of the world, has been typified as emotional, worship-oriented, and emphasizing the spiritual gifts. This tends to be true, and in most cases, it was a corrective to the more cognitive, liturgical ecclesiastical approach which did not demonstrate the charismata. Initially, the early Pentecostals used their theological, pastoral, and educational energies to refute antagonistic responses mainly from other Protestant groups who reacted negatively to the perceived emotionalism, and lack of proper theology of these Pentecostals. Unfortunately, many of the Pentecostals who came from a strong holiness tradition with an emphasis on high moral lives and ethical behavior were drawn into the debates over the baptism of the Holy Spirit, the gifts of the Spirit, and tongues. Thereby, essentially neglecting whole fields of theological and ethical inquiry from a Pentecostal perspective."
  • Acts 10: A Gentile Model for Pentecostal Experience

    Yue Chuen, Lim (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "One of the doctrinal heritages of the classical Pentecostals has been Spirit-baptism."
  • Aspects of Initial-Evidence Dogma

    Hunter, Harold D. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "North American classical Pentecostal denominations were formed in and around the turn of the twentieth century. All of these denominations have been influenced in varying degrees by Charles Parham and W. J. Seymour. The general theological heritage of this movement is quite broad and includes distant groups like the Pietists along with recent millenarians and the nineteenth century healing movement. Among the most telling theological roots are the related Holiness and Keswick movements."
  • Salvation in Christ and Baptism in Spirit

    Dela Cruz, Roli G. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "This reaction essay seeks to review the current article of Robert P. Menzies, "Evidential Tongues: An Essay on Theological Method." My aim is not only to review this present work but also to assess many contributions of R. Menzies to Pentecostal literature. In this essay I will react to his outlook in articulating the Pentecostal claim. Then, I will review his methodology and product. It is also vital to integrate his endeavor to my region, Asia in general, and the Philippines in particular. Thus, I will discuss the relevance of his contributions to my locality. Finally, since R. Menzies asserts that the Pentecostal gift is an empowerment for witness, I will reflect on the missiological implications of his presentation of Pentecostal empowerment."
  • Tongues: An Experience for All in the Pauline Churches?

    Turner, Max (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "In 1 Cor 12:30, Paul poses the question, “Not all speak in tongues do they?,” in a grammatical form which invites his reader to respond with a firm negative. For many, that settles the question implied in the title, once and for all. Unfortunately, few issues are that easily dealt with. Some of my Pentecostal friends would immediately respond that by starting with 1 Cor 12:30 we have begun at the wrong place. It is implicit, they would say, from the narrative of Acts that Luke thought tongues was universally received as initial evidence of a Spirit-baptism promised to all believers. And Luke clearly belonged to the Pauline churches, at least in the general sense that he knew them well, and considered Paul as prominent among the apostles."
  • Initial Evidence

    Clark, Mathew S. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "This article addresses a subject which has been the center of extensive debate both within the Pentecostal movement itself, and (particularly) in debate and dialogue with non-Pentecostal groups. The most heated debate has no doubt been between Pentecostals and Evangelicals, particularly in those societies in which both groups enjoy numerous adherents, and can boast well-developed teaching and academic institutions and structures. North America is a good example of such a society."
  • Groans too Deep for Words

    Macchia, Frank D. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "I asked for a show of hands one day in a pneumatology course at Southeastern College from those students who disagree with the doctrine of tongues as the initial physical evidence of the baptism in the Holy Spirit. Only a small number of hands were raised. I then asked for a show of hands from those who agreed. To my surprise, only a small number of hands went up. I impulsively asked for a show of hands from those who did not understand the meaning of the doctrine."
  • A Response to Frank Macchia’s "Groans too Deep for Words

    Ling, Tan May (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "Frank Macchia’s paper represents one of the growing efforts to articulate and refine the Pentecostal distinctive - initial evidence. I applaud his effort to develop a theology of initial evidence that goes beyond mere defense. A purely defensive apologetic is positionally constrictive to say the least. I heartily agree with him that we need to engage in creative theologizing from within the Pentecostals’ own contextual reality that is passionate in our commitment to scripture and at the same time sensitive to the larger Christian community with whom we dialogue. Such theological humility is important. This would help to prevent doctrinal and experiential differences to disrupt our basic unity as the body of Christ. Since "tongues" is integral to our denominational selfunderstanding and religious life, we need to develop a sustainable theology of glossolalia. Only in this way can we recognize in the difference, the wealth and depth of the whole of our Christian reality and experience."
  • An Evangelical Critique of "Initial Evidence" Doctrine

    Lim, David S. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "It is a privilege to be asked to write this article as a representative of the Asian Evangelical theological community. The writer appreciates this openness to honest academic dialogue on one of the key distinctives of Pentecostal theology. It is hoped that this essay will open the way forward for a common understanding and a more biblical theology of those who believe in the doctrine of “initial evidence” and those who do not."
  • Evidential Tongues

    Menzies, Robert P. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1998)
    "The Pentecostal movement is facing an identity crisis. Any discussion of the doctrine of evidential tongues, if it is to be meaningful, must face this fact. This crisis is the product of an historical process which has been at work since the middle part of this century: the assimilation of the Pentecostal movement into mainstream Evangelicalism. This process of assimilation, although gradual and unobtrusive, has significantly impacted the theology and practice of both the Evangelical and Pentecostal movements. And, while it is the Pentecostal movement, which now finds itself at a strategic crossroads of self-definition, the direction it takes will inevitably impact the broader Evangelical world. The following essay will seek to describe the origin and nature of this self-identity crisis, outline the central questions which have emerged, particularly as they relate to evidential tongues, and suggest how Pentecostals might constructively face these challenges."
  • A Response to Wonsuk Ma's "Toward an Asian Theology"

    Gabriel, Reuben Louis (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1999)
    "While introducing the paper Wonsuk Ma points out that Asian Evangelical theology is still in its formative stage, and hence there are many unanswered questions. His purpose of doing this paper is to probe the possibility of doing theology from an Asian Pentecostal perspective - highlighting the value it would have in the context of a broader Asian Evangelical theology. It will also serve to enlighten Asian Pentecostal thinkers concerning their unique capability and calling to engage in theological reflections within their context; and then to communicate their reflections in relevant ways to Asian recipients."
  • Paul and the Universality of Tongues

    Menzies, Robert P. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1999)
    "In 1 Corinthians 12-14, Paul refers to glossolalia (tongues) as one of the gifts God grants to the church. A thorough reading of these chapters reveals that, in spite of the Corinthian’s misunderstanding and abuse of this gift, Paul holds the private manifestation of tongues in high regards.1 Although Paul is concerned to direct the Corinthians towards a more mature expression of spiritual gifts “in the assembly” - and thus he focuses on the need for edification and the primacy of prophecy over uninterpreted tongues in the corporate setting - Paul never denigrates the gift of tongues. Indeed, Paul affirms that the private manifestation of tongues is edifying to the speaker (1 Cor 14:5) and, in an autobiographical note, he thanks God for the frequent manifestation of tongues in his private prayer-life (1 Cor 14:18). Fearful that his instructions to the Corinthians concerning the proper use of tongues “in the assembly” might be misunderstood, he explicitly commands them not to forbid speaking in tongues (1 Cor 14:39). And, with reference to the private manifestation of tongues, Paul declares: “I would like every one of you to speak in tongues...” (1 Cor 14:5)."
  • A Response to the Responses of Menzies and Chan

    Turner, Max (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1999)
    "It is clear that Menzies and I agree on significant areas. Not least (against a scholarly majority) we concur in a robust assertion of Paul’s confidence in tongues as a spiritual gift of value both to the congregation (when interpreted) and to the individual (in private prayer). And in case any readers were left in doubt, I should perhaps confess that I do regularly use the gift (very pale shades of 1 Cor 14:18!). It is on the claim that Paul affirms tongues to be universally “available” to believers that we differ. Even on this issue we agree substantially on the “shape” of the exegetical problem."
  • A Biblical Theology on Power Manifestation

    Chia, Anita (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1999)
    "Pentecostals have a unique contribution to make to society, i.e., the release of God’s power into life situations. Pentecostals believe that miracles are for today. We actively pray for the sick to be healed, the deaf to hear, the blind to see, and the demon possessed to be delivered. During the hay day of the Charismatic renewal in the 70s and 80s, Pentecostal/Charismatic churches in Singapore grew because of the manifestation of God’s power in the Sunday services and mid-week house fellowships. Hundreds came to the Lord through the house fellowships. Whether individually or as a family, they testify of the power of God in their lives. "
  • Praise for Promise Fulfilled

    Estrada, Nelson P. (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 1999)
    "The concept of "continuity" between on Old and New Testaments is a complex issue. The complexity lies on how to understand the extent of the relationship of the two testaments. The numerous literature arguing for or against the theological unity and disunity of the Bible attest, not only to its meandering nature, but also to the tortuous attempts to find a solution to the problem.1 While there are some who deny a clear connection between the OT and NT, the argument for continuity is gaining ground.2 The recommendation of Rudolf Bultmann for the theological discontinuity of the OT and NT did invite some supporters.3 However, both Bultmann and his followers have not truly posited a convincing argument as to debunk the idea of continuity from the perspective of the NT."

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