The financialization of capitalism: 'Profiting without producing'
AbstractFinancialization is a systemic transformation of capitalism that has occurred during the last four decades. This paper shows that the concept of financialization originates in Marxist theory, though its meaning remains unclear. It then proposes a theory of financialization as rooted in the altered behaviour of the fundamental agents of capitalist accumulation, including non-financial corporations, banks and workers. Finance has reshaped the activities of all three, also resulting in new forms of profit. It follows that opposing financialization is a complex process that involves creating public financial institutions but also re-establishing public provision for workers across a broad range of activities. Financialization cannot be reversed without re-establishing the command of the social and collective over the private and individual for the modern era.