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Abstract[[abstract]]達利(Salvador Dali, 1904-1989)，1904年5月11日出生於西班牙東北部費格拉斯(Figueras)的富裕家庭，自小就表現出早熟、憤世嫉俗、偏執的性格。他那玩世不恭、重視外表與物質，以及狂人的態度，讓不少人對他有兩極化的評價。 達利之所以為達利，正因為他敢挑戰既定的觀念，勇於顛覆傳統美學及社會價值觀，作品充滿了活力並擺脫理智的束縛，把人類最底層的心思、也是最真實的一面挖掘出來。達利在想法上傾向於佛洛依德的潛意識觀念，在技法上可看出『拉斐爾式的古典風』的古典傾向。達利不只擁有豐富過人的想像力，更具備了堅實的繪畫技巧，於馬德里的美術學校中，他不斷地摹寫古典作品，學習正統的繪畫技巧，因此，畫作中的人、物、景所表現出來的技工，極為細膩與純熟。達利嘗試了各種不同的畫風，古典派、新古典派、印象派、點描派、立體派、野獸派等，最後在超現實主義畫派中佔有一席之地。達利曾說過：「超現實主義者和我唯一的不同就在於我是個超現實主義！」「我和瘋子唯一的不同就是我沒瘋！」從達利超強的自我中心性格，我們可以瞭解到為什麼達利之所以會是達利的原因了。綜觀達利的作品，一種是純粹讓欣賞者產生各種心理感受，包括如「消失的影像」般的視覺重組感受，或如「內戰的預感」般的情緒感受，另一種則是讓觀賞者去感受繪畫中的思想意涵，「愛與美」以及「現實性虛無」的對抗力量。如果誘發心理感受是一種藝術，那麼達利的成名，正是由於他的作品非常契合地表現出各種人類心理的現象。本論文的主要研究目的在於深入瞭解達利藝術創作之形成與發展;他的人生歷程與其繪畫創作之相關性;再探討達利於超現實主義的重要性。本論文不僅剖析其獨特的藝術特質，以及與當時藝術發展的關聯性，更藉由他的作品來探討其對近代藝術的啟發和帶給後代多大的影響力，進而肯定其藝術的表現及價值。 Salvador Dali, Spanish Surrealist Artist, 1904-1989. Salvador Dali was a flamboyant painter and sometime writer, sculptor and experimental film-maker, using bizarre dream imagery to create unforgettable and unmistakable landscapes of his inner world. Born into a middle-class family, he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid, where he mastered academic techniques. Dali also pursued his personal interest in Cubism and Futurism and was expelled from the academy for indiscipline in 1923. He formed friendships with Lorca and Buñuel, read Freud with enthusiasm and held his first one-man show in Barcelona, where he exhibited a number of seascapes. He wrote the screenplay for Buñuel’s Un Chien Andalou (produced in 1928), largely thanks to which he was adopted by the Surrealists. In Paris he met Picasso and André Breton, and his effervescent activity, flair for getting publicity through scandal and vivacity which counterbalanced the political difficulties encountered by the group, made him a particularly welcome addition. In 1934 Dalí and Gala were married in a civil ceremony. In 1939, his fellow Surrealist artists officially expelled Dalí from the Surrealist group for political reasons; Marxism was the preferred doctrine in the movement, while Dalí declared himself to be an "Anarcho-Monarchist". Other Surrealists henceforth would speak of Dalí in the past tense, as if he were dead. Salvador Dali is considered as the greatest artist of the surrealist art movement and one of the greatest masters of art of the twentieth century. During his lifetime the public got a picture of an eccentric paranoid. His personality caused a lot of controversy. After his death in 1989 his name remained in the headlines. But this time it was not funny at all. The art market was shaken by reports of great numbers of fraudulent Dali prints. What's all behind it?