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AbstractSince the Palestinian resistance emerged as a response to the Zionist colonization of their homeland, traditional tools such as general strikes, demonstrations, boycott campaigns and armed resistance have been employed. However, with the emergence of the internet and social media a new frontier of resistance has been opened up, acknowledged by Islamic scholars in general and Palestinian politicians in particular as jihād iliktrūni (electronic jihad) – or hacktivism as it is branded in the West. Though we have seen the emergence of Palestinian hacktivist teams such as KDMS-team, Gaza Hacker Team and Gaza Security Team to name a few – as a relatively new phenomenon, little is written or researched on Palestinian hacktivism. The following is a study of this particular kind of resistance against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories. What the Palestinian hacktivists stand for, the historical context that brought it into play, the tactics and composition of the hacktivist teams and also the perception of it in a variety of groups such as Palestinian popular grass roots movements, Palestinian political parties and armed brigades. I pursue a hypothesis where however small the Palestinian hacktivist sphere may be, it opens up and transgresses the barrier created by borders, walls, checkpoints and a by far stronger colonial army by taking the resistance into the digital realm.
Skare, Erik. Hacktivism: Palestinian Resistance in the Digital Era. Master thesis, University of Oslo, 2015
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A history of "Les Mouvements Unis de Résistance" (from 1941 to the post-war years). Essay about the Resistance experience and resistant way of beingLaboratoire des sciences historiques (LSH) ; Université de Franche-Comté (UFC); Université de Franche-Comté; François Marcot; Vast, Cécile (HAL CCSD, 2008-11-10)Through the study of the Resistance experience, this piece of research intends to discuss about the reality and the singularity of a resistant way of being. It leans on the study of three non commmunist movements of the south zone formed in 1941 (Combat, Libération-Sud and Franc-Tireur), included in 1943 in the Mouvements Unis de Résistance (MUR), and in 1944 in the Mouvement de Libération Nationale (MLN). This frame of study allows to multiply the points of view. Indeed the diversity of its services, of its geographical places, of the preoccupations and of the experiences allows to adopt a comparative reasoning. Specially the personal way of Alban Vistel, chief of Libération-Sud in Vienne and regional chief of the MUR after 1943 (in the region of Lyon), take in this study a particular place. The approach by resistant way of being breaks with the vision of the Resistance conceived as a monoblock ; that confirms the idea of a process. Between 1941 and the beginning of 1943, a feeling of identity expresses itself especially through the membership in a "movements" group. Afterward, until the Liberation, this identity of group becomes an identification with the idea and with the entity "Resistance". The diversification of the services and of the "topoi" of resistance multiplies the appropriations of the experience and gives to this resistant way of being a multidimensional character. Finally, big shared elements define step by step a singular idea of the Resistance : testimony, wish to appropriate the time, legendary dimension, social responsibility and elitism, unity, identification to an idea of France, ethics of the action.
Multiplex PCR for Assessment of Tetracycline Resistance (tet) Genes in Antibiotic-Resistant Soil Bacteria and the Ecological ImplicationsGonzalez, Janelis (FIU Digital Commons, 2013-04-25)Antibiotics are becoming increasingly prevalent in bacterial communities due to clinical and agricultural misuse and overuse in their environment. As exposure increases, so does the incidence of microbial resistance. Such is the case with bacterial resistance to tetracyclines, a phenotype often acquired through the horizontal gene transfer of tet genes between bacteria. The objective of this project was to analyze the bacterial diversity of tet resistance genes in soil from Miami-Dade County. Bacterial isolates were Gram-stained and the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic disk diffusion test was performed to determine each bacterium’s degree of resistance. The 16S rRNA gene from antibiotic-resistant isolates was amplified by PCR and sequenced to identify the isolates. All isolates’ tet genes were amplified by multiplex PCR, sequenced, and compared. Among eight isolates, three distinct species were positively identified based on their 16S rRNA sequences and four distinct tet genes were identified, though all tested susceptible to tetracycline via the Kirby-Bauer test. This project clarifies some aspects of the ecology of antibiotic resistance genes, their natural ecological function and the potential for the expansion of intrinsic multi-antibiotic resistance into new ecosystems and/or hosts.
Transgenic herbicide resistant plants Final report of technology assessment on the cultivation of plants with transgenically generated herbicide resistanceDaele, W. van den; Puehler, A.; Sukopp, U.; Broer, I.; Siewert, V.; Neubert, S.; Doebert, R.; Sukopp, H.; Bora, A.; Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fuer Sozialforschung gGmbH (WZB) (Germany). Abt. Normbildung und Umwelt (1995)In the frame of a technology assessment the following topics have been analyzed and discussed: risks by trangenic plants, toxicological and ecological effects by the application of non-selective herbicides, the future of genetic resources, effect on agricultural techniques, problems connected with economy and agricultural policy, long-term assurance of world-wide food provision, ethics of plant manipulations. No special ecological benefits of herbicide resistant plants could be defined. Significant benefits are achieved neither for soil protection nor (with a few exceptions) for avoidance of environmental pollution by herbicides. On the other hand, special risks by transgenic plants could not be demonstrated. (WEN)