Graphische Modelle im natürlichsprachlichen Mensch-Maschine-Dialog
KeywordsGraphische Modelle, Mensch-Maschine-Dialog, Dialog, Dialogsystem, semantischen Decodierung
graphical models, dialog system, dialog, semantic decoding
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AbstractIn dieser Arbeit werden die Verarbeitungsstufen des natürlichsprachlichen Mensch-Maschine-Dialogs am Beispiel eines automatischen Flugauskunftssystems einheitlich mit Graphischen Modellen (GM) modelliert. Die Erkennung von bedeutungstragenden Wortphrasen aus dem Spracherkenner wird mit einem zweistufigen Modell realisiert, welches stochastische und regelbasierte Verfahren kombiniert. Um aus diesen Wortphrasen Strategien für einen natürlichen Dialogablauf zu entwickeln, wird ein diskretes Hidden-Markov-Modell verwendet. Mit der Berechnung der Dialogstrategie zur Laufzeit kann sich das System schnell auf veränderte Situationen einstellen und bleibt flexibel einsetzbar. Die entwickelten GM werden theoretisch analysiert, Trainingsalgorithmen werden abgeleitet und Experimente für die jeweilige Verarbeitungsstufe durchgeführt. Abschließend wird eine Realisierungsmöglichkeit mithilfe von Agenten und deren Erweiterbarkeit aufgezeigt.
In this thesis, procedures of natural spoken human-machine dialog are consistently modeled with graphical models using the example of automatic flight information systems. The recognition of semantic phrases of words from the speech recognizer is realized by a two-stage graphical model, which combines stochastic and rule-based methods. To develop strategies for a natural dialog flow from these word phrases, a discrete hidden Markov model is used. The system can adjust fast to modified situations and remains flexibly deployable due to the evaluation of the dialog strategy in run time. The developed graphical models are analyzed theoretically, training algorithms are derived and experiments for each procedure are carried out. Finally, possibilities for realizations based on software agents and their expandability are pointed out.
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Theoretical Views in Inter-religious Dialog in IranMohammad Masjed Jamei; Majid Jafarian (University of Isfahan, 2015-08-01)It has almost passed one century from the emergence of the idea of the inter-religious dialog. The idea, being based on the assumption that no religion has the absolute truth, believes that there is the possibility of the dialog between all the existent religions in the social world. The dialog could make the coexistence and peace between the religions possible. The importance of this issue is increasingly growing and different ideas have been presented in the different religion departments worldwide. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution, a new image of Islam was offered to the world. An image whose true exposure made the use of the inter-religious dialog unavoidable. This also caused appearance of different views between the Muslim scholars. This article seeks to provide a presentation of three different approaches to the inter-religious dialog by exploring the works of three eminent scholars in the field; Mohaghegh Damad, Abolhassan Navab and Mohammad Masjed Jamei. These three approaches are: · Inter-religious dialog as an interaction-oriented action · Inter-religious dialog as a necessity-oriented action · Inter-religious dialog as a backgroubd-oriented action The necessity-oriented action is the approach taken by Mohaghegh Damad. He emphasizes on the acceptance of other religions. The active action referring to this acceptance is the foundation of this approach. This approach, accepting the developmental discourse in the meaning of inter-religious dialog, believes that this kind of dialog has been evolved from defensive and opposing to a new meaning. Hence, the inter-religious dialog in its new meaning possesses three conditions; the existence of common rights, emphasis on mutual respect and the effort for the two sides for religious exchange. This approach assumes that we must first establish a pattern from the current experiences of inter-religious dialogs in order to have an ideal cooperation and to fortify it. Then we could harmonize, by changing our attitude, our thoughtful interactions with other religions in order to solve the common issues such as the environment protection, the family and the human rights. The necessity-oriented action is the approach taken by Abolhassan Navab. He assumes two subjective interpretation of the inter-religious dialog. A dialog which is defined based on the western experience and atmosphere and a dialog which takes its roots from the eastern discourse. There is no necessity for the first dialog which is named prudential dialog and this is existent just to maintain the survival of the secular elements in the modern society. The second kind, on the other hand, is a necessary dialog and emerges in order to make the religion more meaningful. The goal of the latter is to save the humankind from the social crisis and is to make the religions more cohesive. Navab believes that there are two factors which have turned the attention of believers and religious leaders to the necessity of the inter-religious dialog in its new meaning; first is the opposition culture i.e. the mix of some extremist and modernized elements inside the religions; and the second is the gap between new aspects of religious thinking and the current traditions inside the religion. The necessity-oriented approach requires the two sides of the dialog avoid the theological and philosophical disputes. It also requires change and modification in the constitutional laws regarding the religious minorities and new interpretation of these laws according to the new conditions. The background-oriented approach is based on the views of Aohammmad Masjed Jamei. According to this approach, there are some intellectual, social and historical backgrounds which are the base for the emergence of a new notion for the inter-religious dialog. In genearl, Masjed Jamei corresponds the formation of every notion based on two major factor; first, the atmosphere and the social context in which the notion has been created, second, the concept transfer of one word from one field to another. From the viewpoint of this analysis, the inter-religious dialog is dependent to the intellectual, social and historical backgrounds and gets its meaning from the new conditions. Masjed Jamei believes that the Shiites has been always an axis for presenting a new meaning of inter-religious dialog due to their different methodology i.e. using the intellect in the theological argumentation as well as the existence of a historical and traditional memory. Therefore, by taking this approach, one can make contributions to the legitimacy of the inter-religious dialog which has been weakened due to the globalization by focus on the common values and their rational explanation, re-looking to the old patterns of dialog in the historical memory and tolerance in the acceptance of the others&#39; religious discourse.
TUTTI! - Music Composition as DialogueMichael Coghlan; Nathalie Dupuis-Desormeaux (2018-05-28)As an engineer, when I could not comprehend a physical phenomenon, I turned to mathematics. As a mathematician, when I could not link sciences to humanity, I turned to music. As a music composer, I no longer see things, I see others. The novel method of music composition presented herein is a first comprehensive framework, system and architectonic template relying on the ideologies of Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism as well as on research in auditory perception and cognition to create music dialogue as a means of including and engaging participants in musical communication. Beyond immediate artistic intent, I strive to compose music that fosters inclusiveness and collaboration as a relational social gesture in hope that it might incite people and society to embrace their differences and collaborate with the 'others' around them. After probing aesthetics, communication studies and sociology, I argue that dialogism reveals itself well-suited to the aims of the current research. With dialogism as a guiding philosophy, the chapters then look at the relationship between music and language, perception as authorship, intertextuality, the interplay of imagination and understanding, means of arousal in music, mimesis, motion in music and rhythmic entrainment. Employing findings from Gestalt psychology, psychoacoustics, auditory scene analysis, cognition and psychology of expectation, the remaining chapters propose a cognitively informed polyphonic music composition method capable of reproducing the different constituents of dialogic communication by creating and organizing melodic, harmonic, rhythmic and structural elements. Music theory and principles of orchestration then move to music composition as examples demonstrate how dialogue scored between voice-parts provides opportunities for performers to interact with each other and, consequently, engage listeners experiencing the collaboration. As dialogue can be identified in various works, I postulate that the presented Dialogical Music Composition Method can also serve as a method of music analysis. This personal method of composition also supplies tools that other musicians can opt to employ when endeavouring to build balanced dialogue in music. If visibility is key to identity, then composing music that potentially enters into dialogue which each and every voice promotes 'humanity' through inclusivity, yielding a united Tutti !
Основные характеристики диалогического взаимодействия (к определению актуальных задач педагогики диалога)Yermolayeva, E. B.; Ермолаева, Е. Б. (Российский государственный профессионально-педагогический университет, 2016-04-22)The paper deals with one of the fast developing modern educational approaches – the pedagogy of dialog, based on the philosophical works and concepts of the well-known thinkers of the 20-th century: M. Buber, F. Ebner, O. Rosenshtok-Hussy, M. Bakhtin, etc. Two main directions of dialogic pedagogy are outlined – the instrumental and ontological. Within the framework of the first direction, the dialog is considered to be the main means or instrument of effective teaching used for communication skills development. According to the ontological version, the dialog is not only the instrument, but rather the dominating goal of education: it facilitates meaningful assimilation of skills and knowledge, including the learning ability; promotes cooperation and communal life skills; provides favorable conditions for versatile creative self-development. The supporters of this approach regard the real people, as well as the art works, nature, culture, alter ego etc, as the dialog subjects. The paper observes the main characteristics or prerequisites of dialogic interaction: dialogic attitude (emotionally ethical precondition); antinomian thinking (intellectual precondition); open outlook and creativity (precondition of personal meaning creation in the course of dialog). The comparative analysis of dialogism and non-dialogism of schoolchildren from Riga and Moscow are given regarding their behavior in conflicting situations; attitude to extremism; and reactions to bulling situations. The author is convinced that studying students’ dialogism in different age groups should be continued to improve the educational process effectiveness. Shearing the positive experience in dialogic education by Latvian and Russian colleagues can be very useful